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BACKGROUND The progression of nephropathy from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has not been well described from a single population. This study sought to describe the development and progression through the stages of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, persistently elevated plasma creatinine or renal replacement therapy (RRT), and death. METHODS Using(More)
CONTEXT Maternal subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with various adverse outcomes. Recent consensus guidelines do not advocate universal thyroid function screening during pregnancy but recommend testing high-risk pregnant women with a personal history of thyroid or other autoimmune disorders or with a family history of thyroid(More)
The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus have grown significantly throughout the world, due primarily to the increase in type 2 diabetes. This overall increase in the number of people with diabetes has had a major impact on development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent complications of both types of diabetes. DKD is the(More)
Terminal deletions of chromosome 10p result in a DiGeorge-like phenotype that includes hypoparathyroidism, heart defects, immune deficiency, deafness and renal malformations. Studies in patients with 10p deletions have defined two non-overlapping regions that contribute to this complex phenotype. These are the DiGeorge critical region II (refs 1, 2), which(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Glomerular hyperfiltration is a well-established phenomenon occurring early in some patients with type 1 diabetes. However, there is no consistent answer regarding whether hyperfiltration predicts later development of nephropathy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that compared the risk of developing(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish the age and sex specific mortality for people with diabetes in comparison with local and national background populations; to investigate the relationship between mortality and material deprivation in an unselected population with diabetes. DESIGN Longitudinal study, using a population based district diabetes register. SETTING(More)
BACKGROUND Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence(More)
We estimated glomerular cell number in 50 normotensive type 1 diabetic patients with raised albumin excretion rate (AER) and investigated any change after 3 years in a subgroup of 16 placebo-treated patients. Biopsies from 10 normal kidney donors were used as controls. Mesangial and endothelial cell number was increased in the 50 diabetic patients at the(More)