Learn More
Evidence of marked variability in response among people exposed to the same environmental risk implies that individual differences in genetic susceptibility might be at work. The study of such Gene-by-Environment (GxE) interactions has gained momentum. In this article, the authors review research about one of the most extensive areas of inquiry: variation(More)
Gene–environmental interaction (G × E) between a common functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) and environmental adversity on the onset of depression in humans has been found in fifteen independent studies. It is supported by evidence from animal experiments, pharmacological challenge and neuroimaging(More)
CONTEXT A previous study reported a gene x environment interaction in which a haplotype in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) was associated with protection against adult depressive symptoms in individuals who were maltreated as children (as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [CTQ]). OBJECTIVE To replicate the(More)
Prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of major depressive disorder (MDD) have met with limited success. We sought to increase statistical power to detect disease loci by conducting a GWAS mega-analysis for MDD. In the MDD discovery phase, we analyzed more than 1.2 million autosomal and X chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 759(More)
To maintain nutritional homeostasis, external food-related stimuli have to be evaluated in relation to the internal states of hunger or satiety. To examine the neural circuitry responsible for integration of internal and external determinants of human eating behaviour, brain responses to visual and complex gustatory food-related stimuli were measured using(More)
To improve the ‘personalized-medicine’ approach to the treatment of depression, we need to identify biomarkers that, assessed before starting treatment, predict future response to antidepressants (‘predictors’), as well as biomarkers that are targeted by antidepressants and change longitudinally during the treatment (‘targets’). In this study, we tested the(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors sought to identify neural correlates of eating disorders in order to contribute to the debate on the genesis and classification of eating disorders and provide endophenotypes for genetic research. METHOD Twenty-six female patients with eating disorders (10 with bulimia nervosa, 16 with anorexia nervosa) and 19 healthy female(More)
BACKGROUND A number of scales are used to estimate the severity of depression. However, differences between self-report and clinician rating, multi-dimensionality and different weighting of individual symptoms in summed scores may affect the validity of measurement. In this study we examined and integrated the psychometric properties of three commonly used(More)
OBJECTIVE Offspring of parents with severe mental illness (SMI; schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder) are at an increased risk of developing mental illness. We aimed to quantify the risk of mental disorders in offspring and determine whether increased risk extends beyond the disorder present in the parent. METHOD Meta-analyses of(More)
An updated review of 34 human observational studies indicates that the length polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene moderates the effect of environmental adversity in the development of depression. This finding depends on the use of contextual or objective methods to assess environmental adversity and is attenuated when self-report instruments are(More)