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Aquaporins (AQPs) are an ancient family of channel proteins that transport water and neutral solutes through a pore and are found in all eukaryotes and most prokaryotes. A comparison of the amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 31 full-length cDNAs of maize (Zea mays) AQPs shows that they comprise four different groups of highly divergent(More)
The transport of water through membranes is regulated in part by aquaporins or water channel proteins. These proteins are members of the larger family of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Plant aquaporins are categorized as either tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) or plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs). Sequence analysis shows that PIPs form several(More)
Maize starchy endosperm mutants have kernel phenotypes that include a brittle texture, susceptibility to insect pests, and inferior functional characteristics of products made from their flour. At least 18 such mutants have been identified, but only in the cases of opaque2 (o2) and floury2 (fl2), which affect different aspects of storage protein synthesis,(More)
Endosperm of cereal grains is one of the most important renewable resources for food, feed, and industrial raw material. It consists of four triploid cell types, i.e., aleurone, starchy endosperm, transfer cells, and cells of the embryo surrounding region. In maize, the aleurone layer is one cell layer thick and covers most of the perimeter of the(More)
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are molecular chaperones that contain thioredoxin (TRX) domains and aid in the formation of proper disulfide bonds during protein folding. To identify plant PDI-like (PDIL) proteins, a genome-wide search of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was carried out to produce a comprehensive list of 104 genes encoding proteins(More)
The nucellus is a complex maternal grain tissue that embeds and feeds the developing cereal endosperm and embryo. Differential screening of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) cDNA library from 5-d-old ovaries resulted in the isolation of two cDNA clones encoding nucellus-specific homologs of the vacuolar-processing enzyme of castor bean (Ricinus communis). Based on(More)
We analyzed cDNA libraries from developing endosperm of the B73 maize inbred line to evaluate the expression of storage protein genes. This study showed that zeins are by far the most highly expressed genes in the endosperm, but we found an inverse relationship between the number of zein genes and the relative amount of specific mRNAs. Although alpha-zeins(More)
We have investigated the transport of storage proteins, their processing proteases, and the Vacuolar Sorting Receptor-1/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Like Protein1 (VSR-1/ATELP1) receptor during the formation of protein storage vacuoles in Arabidopsis thaliana embryos by means of high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution, electron tomography,(More)
Seed-type vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) activity is predicted to be essential for post-translational proteolysis of seed storage proteins in the protein storage vacuole of developing seeds. To test this hypothesis, we examined the protein profiles of developing and germinating seeds from Arabidopsis plants containing transposon-insertional knockout(More)
The role(s) of specific proteases in seed protein processing is only vaguely understood; indeed, the overall role of processing in stable protein deposition has been the subject of more speculation than direct investigation. Seed-type members of the vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) family were hypothesized to perform a unique function in seed protein(More)