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A minimal set of muscles (8 to 16) were identified as candidates for implantation in a clinical system to provide walking function to individuals with complete paraplegia using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Three subjects with complete motor and sensory paraplegia had percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted in all major muscles(More)
This study was completed to understand the usage patterns, system performance, degree of satisfaction, complications, and health benefits as perceived by recipients of a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis for exercise, standing, and transfers in individuals with low-cervical or thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). A standardized telephone survey was(More)
Six individuals with paraplegia and injury levels from C-1 through T-12 participated in a study to evaluate the functional capabilities of a hybrid gait orthotic system. Subjects learned to use a custom-built reciprocal gait orthosis without stimulation and with electrical stimulation activating between 4 and 16 muscles. Outcomes were scored with standard(More)
A hydraulic stance control knee mechanism (SCKM) was developed to fully support the knee against flexion during stance and allow uninhibited motion during swing for individuals with paraplegia using functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) for gait assistance. The SCKM was optimized for maximum locking torque for body-weight support and minimum resistance(More)
In paraplegic subjects who had functional transection of the spinal cord at a level between the fourth and the eleventh thoracic vertebra, independent reciprocal walking was achieved with the use of a portable microprocessor-controlled stimulator that electrically activated the muscles through percutaneous intramuscular wire electrodes. The electrodes were(More)
Intramuscular (IM) electrodes have been used safely and effectively for decades to activate paralyzed muscles in neuroprosthetic systems employing functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, the response to stimulation delivered by these and any type of electrode can be limited by a phenomenon known as spillover, in which the stimulus intended to(More)
Innervated paralyzed muscles have been implanted with temporary percutaneous intramuscular electrodes in order to allow selective stimulation of as many muscles as necessary to achieve a cosmetically acceptable and energy-efficient gait in paraplegic subjects. Fine wire electrodes were implanted under sterile conditions at the motor points (MP) of hip(More)
The influence of stimulus interpulse interval (IPI) on torque output during electrically-evoked contractions was investigated for the knee extensor muscles of paralyzed subjects. The parameters measured were the rise time, magnitude, and relaxation time of the contraction at stimulus IPI's ranging from 62 to 7 ms. Torque output increased as IPI's were(More)
Implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems for walking are experimentally available to individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, data on short-term therapeutic and functional outcomes are limited. The goal of this study was to quantify therapeutic and functional effects of an implanted FES system for walking after(More)
This study explores the feasibility of a hybrid system of exoskeletal bracing and multichannel functional electrical stimulation (FES) to facilitate standing, walking, and stair climbing after spinal cord injury (SCI). The orthotic components consist of electromechanical joints that lock and unlock automatically to provide upright stability and free(More)