Rudi Kobetic

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A minimal set of muscles (8 to 16) were identified as candidates for implantation in a clinical system to provide walking function to individuals with complete paraplegia using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Three subjects with complete motor and sensory paraplegia had percutaneous intramuscular electrodes implanted in all major muscles(More)
This study explores the feasibility of a hybrid system of exoskeletal bracing and multichannel functional electrical stimulation (FES) to facilitate standing, walking, and stair climbing after spinal cord injury (SCI). The orthotic components consist of electromechanical joints that lock and unlock automatically to provide upright stability and free(More)
A 16-channel functional electrical stimulation (FES) system has been implanted in a person with T10 paraplegia for over a year. The system consists of two eight-channel radio frequency controlled receiver-stimulators delivering stimuli through a network of 14 epimysial and two intramuscular electrodes. Using this system and a walker for support, the subject(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a newly developed reciprocal gait orthosis (RGO) with a variable constraint hip mechanism (VCHM) on the kinematics and kinetics of normal gait. The VCHM was compared with the isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis (IRGO) for walking after paraplegia. Both the VCHM and the IRGO were evaluated with(More)
Innervated paralyzed muscles have been implanted with temporary percutaneous intramuscular electrodes in order to allow selective stimulation of as many muscles as necessary to achieve a cosmetically acceptable and energy-efficient gait in paraplegic subjects. Fine wire electrodes were implanted under sterile conditions at the motor points (MP) of hip(More)
In paraplegic subjects who had functional transection of the spinal cord at a level between the fourth and the eleventh thoracic vertebra, independent reciprocal walking was achieved with the use of a portable microprocessor-controlled stimulator that electrically activated the muscles through percutaneous intramuscular wire electrodes. The electrodes were(More)
Implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems for walking are experimentally available to individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, data on short-term therapeutic and functional outcomes are limited. The goal of this study was to quantify therapeutic and functional effects of an implanted FES system for walking after(More)
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) can benefit significantly from functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) systems for standing if manual tasks can be performed while upright. Using FNS to sufficiently activate the knee extensors to rise from a sitting position often results in inadvertent activation of the rectus femoris and/or sartorius, which flex(More)
A percutaneous functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) system is being developed for restoring function in the lower extremities of spinal cord injured people with lesions between T4 and T11. Limitations of the current system are electrode failure, muscle fatigue, cumbersome electrical hardware, and an inefficient user-machine interface. Transforming(More)
Joint contractures have been one of the contraindications for use of functional electrical stimulation for standing in paraplegic patients. A simulation study using a three-segment link mechanical model of the human body was performed to calculate the muscle moments at the ankles, knees, and hips during standing with and without having joint contractures.(More)