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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ecchordosis physaliphora (EP), found in about 2% of autopsies, is a clinically inconspicuous notochordal remnant appearing at the dorsal wall of the clivus. To our knowledge, a systematic review of its MR features does not exist. The aim of this study was to describe the MR imaging findings of incidentally found retroclival EP with(More)
OBJECT Secondary damage after central nervous system (CNS) injury is driven in part by oxidative stress and CNS inflammation and is substantially mediated by cyclooxygenases (COXs). To date, the rapidly inducible COX-2 isoform has been primarily linked to inflammatory processes, whereas expression of COX-1 is confined to physiological functions. The authors(More)
BACKGROUND The repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is involved in formation of the central nervous system during development by moderating the repulsion of growing axons. However, the role of RGM in adult central nervous system lesions remains to be clarified. OBJECTIVE To identify and determine RGM expression in adult brains with focal cerebral ischemia or(More)
The immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) is under tight control of regulatory mechanisms, resulting in the establishment of immune privilege. CNS injury induces an acute inflammatory reaction, composed mainly of invading leukocytes and activated microglial cells/macrophages. The generation of this robust immune response requires binding of(More)
AIMS The zinc finger transcription factor WT1 is expressed in astrocytic neoplasms and therefore is a potential target of immunotherapy in brain tumours. Our aim was to further elucidate the role of WT1 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in neuropathology, particularly as to the differentiation of astrocytoma from oligodendroglioma as well as to the(More)
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) together with its ligand, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), constitutes a proteolytic system associated with tissue remodelling and leucocyte infiltration. uPAR is a member of the glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchored protein family. The functional role of uPAR comprises(More)
We report the case of a 9-year-old boy clinically presenting with severe headache, vomiting, head retroflexion, nystagmus, and ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed brainstem enlargement leading to the diagnosis of an inflammatory process. In addition, the clinical picture, a monocytic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis with elevated protein and lactate(More)
BACKGROUND MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements are common practice in the preoperative diagnostic regimen, but no evidence exists concerning their value in intraoperative MRI (iMRI) setting. We sought to examine the feasibility of intraoperative MRS and to assess the clinical value of the method in optimizing the gliomas resection. METHODS Forty-five(More)
(6 %) and 1 strong case (1 %); supplemental Figure S1). Twelve of the positive cases were HGH-producing adenomas, two were mixed mammosomatotroph adenomas and the four remaining adenomas expressed ACTH (including the case with score 3). To rule out non-specific enzymatic activity of the avidin–biotin method, the VE1 diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining results(More)
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, and is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Diffuse neurological signs along with multifocal lesions in brain and spinal cord characterise the disease. Possibly, a T cell mediated autoimmune response to myelin basic protein,(More)