Ruchi M. Newman

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Deep sequencing technologies have the potential to transform the study of highly variable viral pathogens by providing a rapid and cost-effective approach to sensitively characterize rapidly evolving viral quasispecies. Here, we report on a high-throughput whole HIV-1 genome deep sequencing platform that combines 454 pyrosequencing with novel assembly and(More)
Simian immunodeficiency viruses of sooty mangabeys (SIVsm) are the source of multiple, successful cross-species transmissions, having given rise to HIV-2 in humans, SIVmac in rhesus macaques, and SIVstm in stump-tailed macaques. Cellular assays and phylogenetic comparisons indirectly support a role for TRIM5alpha, the product of the TRIM5 gene, in(More)
The TRIM family proteins share a conserved arrangement of three adjacent domains, an N-terminal RING domain, followed by one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil, which constitutes the tripartite-motif for which the family is named. However, the C-termini of TRIM proteins vary, and include at least nine evolutionarily distinct, unrelated protein domains.(More)
Overproduction of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) regulatory protein ODC-antizyme has been shown to correlate with cell growth inhibition in a variety of different cell types. Although the exact mechanism of this growth inhibition is not known, it has been attributed to the effect of antizyme on polyamine metabolism. Antizyme binds directly to ODC,(More)
Many important bacterial virulence factors act as mimics of mammalian proteins to subvert normal host cell processes. To identify bacterial protein mimics of components of the innate immune signaling pathway, we searched the bacterial genome database for proteins with homology to the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of the mammalian Toll-like(More)
Retroviral restriction factor TRIM5alpha exhibits a high degree of sequence variation among primate species. It has been proposed that this diversity is the cumulative result of ancient, lineage-specific episodes of positive selection. Here, we describe the contribution of within-species variation to the evolution of TRIM5alpha. Sampling within two(More)
TRIM5alpha is a potent barrier to cross-species retroviral transmission, and TRIM5alphas from different species have divergent antiretroviral specificities. Multiple TRIM5 alleles circulate within rhesus macaque populations. Here we show that they too have different antiretroviral specificities, highlighting how TRIM5 genotypes contribute to protection in(More)
Viruses diversify over time within hosts, often undercutting the effectiveness of host defenses and therapeutic interventions. To design successful vaccines and therapeutics, it is critical to better understand viral diversification, including comprehensively characterizing the genetic variants in viral intra-host populations and modeling changes from(More)
UNLABELLED Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), the principal causative agent of recurrent genital herpes, is a highly prevalent viral infection worldwide. Limited information is available on the amount of genomic DNA variation between HSV-2 strains because only two genomes have been determined, the HG52 laboratory strain and the newly sequenced SD90e(More)
NAIP CIIA HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) family proteins are involved in sensing intracellular pathogens or pathogen-derived molecules, triggering host defense responses resulting in caspase-mediated processing of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation. Caspase-associated recruitment domain, leucine-rich repeat, and NACHT-containing protein (CLAN), also(More)