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A common challenge in reconstructing phylogenies involves a high frequency of short internal branches, which makes basal relationships difficult to resolve. Often it is not clear whether this pattern results from insufficient or inappropriate data, versus from a rapid evolutionary radiation. The snapping shrimp genus Synalpheus, which contains in excess of(More)
As the most extreme expression of apparent altruism in nature, eusociality has long posed a central paradox for behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Because eusociality has arisen rarely among animals, understanding the selective pressures important in early stages of its evolution remains elusive. Employing a historical approach to this problem, we used(More)
Covert channels are a form of hidden communication that may violate the integrity of systems. Since their birth in multilevel security systems in the early 70's they have evolved considerably, such that new solutions have appeared for computer networks mainly due to vague protocols specifications. We analyze a protocol extensively used today, the Dynamic(More)