Ruben Janssen

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The various effects of temperature change are only partially predictable. Temporal measures relevant to membrane activity, action potentials, synaptic transmission, and evoked potentials are all consistently increased with cooling and decreased by warming. However, the various measures of amplitude at different levels, and even within similar preparations,(More)
Previous reports have suggested that IDPN may be ototoxic (Wolff et al., 1977; Crofton and Knight, 1991). The purpose of this research was to investigate the ototoxicity of IDPN using behavioral, physiological and morphological approaches. Three groups of adult rats were exposed to IDPN (0-400 mg/kg/day) for three consecutive days. In the first group, at(More)
The application of auditory and visual evoked potentials (VEP) to neurotoxicity testing of humans and animals is reviewed. VEPs elicited by flash, reversing-checkerboard patterns, and sine wave grating are described. The flask evoked potential in rats is altered by exposure to many heavy metals, pesticides and solvents. The brainstem auditory evoked(More)
Analog filtering of the brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) and synthetic wave forms using steeply sloped filters are shown to produce significant distortion even when filter cut-off frequencies are well removed from the wave form spectrum. The degree of distortion is such that it may result in erroneous identification of peaks in the BAER. Reversal(More)
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of hypothermia and pentobarbital anesthesia, alone and in combination, on the brain-stem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) of rats. In experiment I, unanesthetized rats were cooled to colonic temperatures 0.5 and 1.0 degrees C below normal. In experiment II, 2 groups of rats were cooled and tested at(More)
Trimethyltin (TMT) is a neurotoxicant known to alter auditory function. The present study was designed to compare TMT-induced auditory dysfunction using behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical techniques. Adult male Long-Evans hooded rats (n = 9-12/group) were acutely exposed to saline, 3, 5, or 7 mg/kg TMT. Auditory thresholds were determined 11(More)
Glutamate (Glu) is neurotoxic in the neonatal rat cochlea, producing hearing impairment which is largely due to the death of spiral ganglion cells, whereas the receptor hair cells are spared. Dendritic processes of the spiral ganglion are postsynaptic to the primary afferent synapse of the auditory system. The experiments reported here were designed to test(More)
The neurotoxic effects of exogenous glutamate were studied in the rat cochlea. Glutamate-treated rats (4 g/kg/day i.p., postnatal days 2-9) exhibited electrophysiologically-measured elevations in high frequency thresholds usually associated with hair cell loss in the basal region of the cochlea. While surface preparations of the organ of Corti revealed no(More)
In other systems such as the hypothalamus and hippocampus, it has been shown that cells postsynaptic with respect to glutamatergic inputs degenerate when exposed to large doses of glutamate ("glutamate neurotoxicity"). We have shown that large doses of glutamate administered intraperitoneally are toxic to spiral ganglion cells in the inner ear of the rat.(More)
Long-Evans hooded rats were exposed to 1000 ppm toluene or 0 ppm toluene 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 30 days. Following removal from the exposure conditions (18-26 hr) flash-evoked potentials were recorded to paired light flashes and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure properties were examined. No alterations were found in the response to the first flash, but(More)