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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Peripheral inflammation induces p38 MAPK activation in the soma of C fiber nociceptors in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after 24 hr. Inflammation also increases protein, but not mRNA levels, of the heat-gated ion channel TRPV1 (VR1) in these cells, which is then transported to peripheral but not central C fiber terminals. Inhibiting p38 activation in the(More)
We investigated the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) within spinal neurons in producing pain hypersensitivity. Within a minute of an intense noxious peripheral or C-fiber electrical stimulus, many phosphoERK-positive neurons were observed, most predominantly in lamina I and IIo of the ipsilateral dorsal horn. This staining(More)
Synaptic plasticity is fundamental to many neurobiological functions, including memory and pain. Central sensitization refers to the increased synaptic efficacy established in somatosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord following intense peripheral noxious stimuli, tissue injury or nerve damage. This heightened synaptic transmission leads to(More)
Treatment of neuropathic pain, triggered by multiple insults to the nervous system, is a clinical challenge because the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain development remain poorly understood. Most treatments do not differentiate between different phases of neuropathic pain pathophysiology and simply focus on blocking neurotransmission, producing(More)
Activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase in dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord by peripheral noxious stimulation contributes to short-term pain hypersensitivity. We investigated ERK activation by peripheral inflammation and its involvement in regulating gene expression in the spinal cord and in(More)
Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a mitogen activated-protein kinase (MAPK), in dorsal horn neurons contributes to inflammatory pain by transcription-dependent and -independent means. We have now investigated if ERK is activated in the spinal cord after a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and if this contributes to the neuropathic(More)
Although the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) pathway typically regulates cell growth and survival, increasing evidence indicates the involvement of this pathway in neural plasticity. It is unknown whether the PI3K pathway can mediate pain hypersensitivity. Intradermal injection of capsaicin and NGF produce heat hyperalgesia by activating their(More)
The possible involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in the development of peripheral neuropathic pain has been explored. Ligation of the L5 spinal nerve (SNL) on one side in adult rats produces an early onset and long-lasting mechanical allodynia. This lesion results in activation(More)
Our previous study showed that activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in spinal astrocytes plays an important role in neuropathic pain sensitization. We further investigated how JNK regulates neuropathic pain. In cultured astrocytes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) transiently activated JNK via TNF receptor-1. Cytokine array indicated that the(More)