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The Polycomb group (PcG) protein Eed is implicated in regulation of imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in extraembryonic cells but not of random X inactivation in embryonic cells. The Drosophila homolog of the Eed-Ezh2 PcG protein complex achieves gene silencing through methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3-K27), which suggests a role for H3-K27(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins exist in at least two biochemically distinct protein complexes, the EED-EZH2 complex and the PRC1 complex, that respectively possess H3-K27 methyltransferase and H2A-K119 ubiquitin E3 ligase activities. How the enzymatic activities are regulated and what their role is in Hox gene silencing are not clear. Here, we demonstrate(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are important for maintaining the silenced state of homeotic genes. Biochemical and genetic studies in Drosophila and mammalian cells indicate that PcG proteins function in at least two distinct protein complexes: the ESC-E(Z) or EED-EZH2 complex, and the PRC1 complex. Recent work has shown that at least part of the silencing(More)
Recent studies have revealed the intrinsic histone methyltransferase (HMTase) activity of the EED-EZH2 complex and its role in Hox gene silencing, X inactivation, and cancer metastasis. In this study, we focus on the function of individual components. We found that the HMTase activity requires a minimum of three components-EZH2, EED, and SUZ12-while AEBP2(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain the transcriptional silence of target genes through many cycles of cell division. Here, we provide evidence for the sequential binding of PcG proteins at a Polycomb response element (PRE) in proliferating cells in which the sequence-specific DNA binding Pho and Phol proteins directly recruit E(z)-containing complexes,(More)
The C. elegans proteins MES-2 and MES-6, orthologs of the Polycomb group (PcG) chromatin repressors E(Z) and ESC, exist in a complex with their novel partner MES-3. The MES system participates in silencing the X chromosomes in the hermaphrodite germline. Loss of maternal MES function leads to germline degeneration and sterility. We report here that the MES(More)
Imprinted genes are clustered in domains, and their allelic repression is mediated by imprinting control regions. These imprinting control regions are marked by DNA methylation, which is essential to maintain imprinting in the embryo. To explore how imprinting is regulated in placenta, we studied the Kcnq1 domain on mouse distal chromosome 7. This large(More)
Polycomb group proteins Bmi-1 and Ring1B are core subunits of the PRC1 complex, which plays important roles in the regulation of Hox gene expression, X-chromosome inactivation, tumorigenesis, and stem cell self-renewal. The RING finger protein Ring1B is an E3 ligase that participates in the ubiquitination of lysine 119 of histone H2A, and the binding of(More)
Methylation of histone tails plays an important role in chromatin structure and function. Previously, we reported that ESET/SETDB1 is a histone methyltransferase (HMTase). Here, we show that SETDB1 tightly associates with the human homolog of mAM, a murine ATFa-associated factor. Although recombinant ESET can methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3-K9), its(More)
BACKGROUND Covalent modifications of histone N-terminal tails play fundamental roles in regulating chromatin structure and function. Extensive studies have established that acetylation of specific lysine residues in the histone tails plays an important role in transcriptional regulation. Besides acetylation, recent studies have revealed that histone(More)