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The plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins syntaxin and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) and the vesicle SNARE protein vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) are essential for a late Ca(2+)-dependent step in regulated exocytosis, but their precise roles and regulation by(More)
Synaptotagmins contain tandem C2 domains and function as Ca(2+) sensors for vesicle exocytosis but the mechanism for coupling Ca(2+) rises to membrane fusion remains undefined. Synaptotagmins bind SNAREs, essential components of the membrane fusion machinery, but the role of these interactions in Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle exocytosis has not been directly(More)
CAPS-1 is required for Ca2+-triggered fusion of dense-core vesicles with the plasma membrane, but its site of action and mechanism are unknown. We analyzed the kinetics of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis reconstituted in permeable PC12 cells. CAPS-1 increased the initial rate of Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis by acting at a rate-limiting, Ca2+-dependent(More)
Twelve patients with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) toxicity from a single rave event presented to multiple San Francisco Bay area hospitals with various life-threatening complications including seizures and hyperthermia. Eight required emergent endotracheal intubation and six had hypotension. Hyperkalemia, acute kidney injury, and rhabdomyolysis(More)
CONTEXT Synthetic cannabinoids have been manufactured, sold, and consumed for recreational purposes since at least 2004; their use has been associated with adverse psychiatric, cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, and neurologic effects. We report simultaneous canine and human clinical cases associated with exposure to a novel synthetic cannabinoid, PB-22(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2009, synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has emerged as a growing public health threat in the United States (US). Several outbreaks of unexpected, severe toxicity linked to SC use have been reported since 2012. Reports of varied and significant morbidity after SC use are expected to increase because newer compounds enter the marketplace more(More)
In regulated vesicle exocytosis, SNARE protein complexes drive membrane fusion to connect the vesicle lumen with the extracellular space. The triggering of fusion pore formation by Ca(2+) is mediated by specific isoforms of synaptotagmin (Syt), which employ both SNARE complex and membrane binding. Ca(2+) also promotes fusion pore expansion and Syts have(More)
Phosphoinositides (PI) are important signaling molecules involved in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. We found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] increase the secretory response triggered by 10 mum Ca(2+) in streptolysin-O-permeabilized insulin-secreting INS-1E cells. In addition,(More)
BACKGROUND Anion gap metabolic acidosis is typically encountered in the emergency department (ED) setting as the result of shock, other endogenous metabolic derangements, or from exogenous toxicants. The differential diagnosis for toxicant-related acidosis (exemplified by common mnemonics) emphasizes acute overdose. CASE REPORT The case we present(More)