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The roles of acetylcholine, dopamine, octopamine, tyramine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, glutamate, 4-aminobutanoic acid (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and a range of peptides as insect neurotransmitters are evaluated in terms of the criteria used to identify transmitters. Of the biogenic amines considered, there is good evidence that acetylcholine, dopamine,(More)
The nine Leucophaea Tachykinin-Related Peptides (LemTRP 1-9) isolated from the midgut and brain of the cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, all induced increases in spontaneous contractions of the L. maderae hindgut. Synthetic LemTRP 1 and 3-9, were equally potent in inducing contractions of the hindgut. More than seven of the nine C-terminal residues of the(More)
1. The neuropeptide proctolin (Arg-Tyr-Leu-Pro-Thr) both potentiates neurally evoked contractions and causes contractures of insect skeletal muscle. In the hindleg extensor tibiae muscle of the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, the proctolin analogue [Afb (p-NO2)2]-proctolin is also able to potentiate neurally evoked contractions but is approximately(More)
Culture supernatants from four species of skin microorganisms (P. acnes, P. avidum, P. granulosum and S. epidermidis) were assayed for smooth muscle contracting substances which are indicative of inflammatory activity. At least three types of smooth muscle contracting substances were detected. These were: first, a substance active on a rat fundic strip(More)
1. Morphine and YAGFMamide were the most effective potentiators of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced relaxation of the isolated foregut. 2. Morphine had no effect on proctolin-induced tissue contraction which was inhibited by YGGFMamide and YFMRFamide. 3. The differing potency of FaRPs and morphine to potentiate 5-HT effects and reduce proctolin responses(More)