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Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere was investigated for the twelve years between 1991 and 2003 employing the ozone-tracer correlation method. For this method, the change in the relation between ozone and a long-lived tracer is considered for all twelve years over the lifetime of the polar vortex to calculate chemical ozone loss. Both the(More)
In this paper chemical ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere was investigated for twelve years between 1991 and 2003. The accumulated local ozone loss and the column ozone loss were consistently derived mainly on the basis of HALOE observations. The ozone-tracer correlation (TRAC) method is used, where the relation between ozone 5 and a long-lived tracer is(More)
In locomotion, humans have to deal with irregularities of the ground, i.e., pathways covered with stones, grass, or roots. When they encounter ground with changes in terrain height they seem to use spring-mass dynamics to help passively stabilize their locomotory trajectory. With increasing step heights humans reduce their leg stiffness, but it is as of yet(More)
In locomotion, humans have to deal with changes in ground level like pavement or stairs. When they encounter uneven ground with changes in terrain height, they reduce their angle of attack and leg stiffness on a step. This strategy was found for the single step upward movement. However, are these adjustments the result of a general strategy? In our study we(More)
During the second part of the TROCCINOX campaign that took place in Brazil in early 2005, chemical species were measured on-board the high-altitude research aircraft Geophysica (ozone, water vapor, NO, NO y , CH 4 and CO) in the altitude range up to 20 km (or up to 450 K potential temperature), i.e. spanning the entire TTL region roughly extending between(More)
During running in a natural environment, humans must routinely negotiate varied and unpredictable changes in ground level. To prevent a fall, changes in ground level, especially those that are invisible, require a quick response of the movement system within a short time. For 11 subjects we investigated two consecutive contacts during running across visible(More)
In locomotion, humans have to deal with irregularities in the ground. When they encounter uneven terrain with changes in vertical height, they adjust the geometry of their legs. Recent investigations have shown that the preactivation of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) correlates with the ankle angle at touchdown, but it is as of yet unclear why these(More)
In this study we explore the hypothesis that estimates of failure loads in the thoracic spine by lumbar dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are compromised of skeletal heterogeneity throughout the spine and artifacts of spinal DXA. We studied the correlation between mechanical failure loads of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and that of in situ vs. ex(More)
TOMS (Version 8) ozone records are analysed between latitudes 60 • S and 60 • N, in order to extract au-tocorrelation properties with high spatial resolution. After the removal of semi-annual, annual, and quasi-biennial background oscillations, the residuals are evaluated by detrended fluctuation analysis. Long-range correlations are detected everywhere.(More)