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In locomotion, humans have to deal with irregularities of the ground, i.e., pathways covered with stones, grass, or roots. When they encounter ground with changes in terrain height they seem to use spring-mass dynamics to help passively stabilize their locomotory trajectory. With increasing step heights humans reduce their leg stiffness, but it is as of yet(More)
Walking in even the most familiar environment posesses a challenge to humans due to continuously changing surface conditions such as compliance, slip, or level. These changes can be visible or invisible due to camouflage. In order to prevent falling, camouflaged changes in the ground level in particular require a quick response of the locomotor system. For(More)
Up to now, most gait analyses on low back pain concentrate on changes in trunk coordination during walking on a treadmill. Locomotion on uneven ground as well as lower limb changes receives little attention in association with low back pain. The present study focuses on how chronic non-specific low back pain causes modifications in lower limb and trunk(More)
In locomotion, humans have to deal with irregularities in the ground. When they encounter uneven terrain with changes in vertical height, they adjust the geometry of their legs. Recent investigations have shown that the preactivation of the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) correlates with the ankle angle at touchdown, but it is as of yet unclear why these(More)
In locomotion, humans have to deal with changes in ground level like pavement or stairs. When they encounter uneven ground with changes in terrain height, they reduce their angle of attack and leg stiffness on a step. This strategy was found for the single step upward movement. However, are these adjustments the result of a general strategy? In our study we(More)
During running in a natural environment, humans must routinely negotiate varied and unpredictable changes in ground level. To prevent a fall, changes in ground level, especially those that are invisible, require a quick response of the movement system within a short time. For 11 subjects we investigated two consecutive contacts during running across visible(More)
Birds and humans are successful bipedal runners, who have individually evolved bipedalism, but the extent of the similarities and differences of their bipedal locomotion is unknown. In turn, the anatomical differences of their locomotor systems complicate direct comparisons. However, a simplifying mechanical model, such as the conservative spring-mass(More)
In bipedal runners and hoppers the hip is not located at the center of mass in the sagittal projection. This displacement influences operation and energetics of the leg attached to the hip. To investigate this influence in a first step a simple conservative bouncing template is developed in which a heavy trunk is suspended to a massless spring at a pivot(More)
While running on uneven ground, humans are able to negotiate visible but also camouflaged changes in ground level. Previous studies have shown that the leg kinematics before touch down change with ground level. The present study experimentally investigated the contributions of visual perception (visual feedback), proprioceptive feedback and feed-forward(More)