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Although a growing body of evidence suggests that noninvasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation have the capacity to enhance neural function in both brain-injured and neurally intact individuals, the implications of their potential use for cosmetic self-enhancement have not(More)
Although evidence suggests that patients with left hemisphere strokes and non-fluent aphasia who receive 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the intact right inferior frontal gyrus experience persistent benefits in naming, it remains unclear whether the effects of rTMS in these patients generalize to other language abilities. We(More)
BACKGROUND A limited number of studies have shown that modulation of cortical excitability using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is safe and tolerable. Few have directly evaluated whether sham and active stimulation are indistinguishable. OBJECTIVE We aimed to demonstrate tDCS safety and tolerability in a large cohort, and to compare the(More)
Recent neuroscience evidence suggests that some higher-order tasks might benefit from a reduction in sensory filtering associated with low levels of cognitive control. Guided by neuroimaging findings, we hypothesized that cathodal (inhibitory) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) will facilitate performance in a flexible use generation task.(More)
OBJECTIVES If neuroplastic changes in aphasia are consistent across studies, this would imply relatively stereotyped mechanisms of recovery which could guide the design of more efficient noninvasive brain stimulation treatments. To address this question, we performed a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of chronic aphasia after stroke. (More)
BACKGROUND Poor reading efficiency is the most persistent problem for adults with developmental dyslexia. Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between left posterior temporal cortex (pTC) function and reading ability, regardless of dyslexia status. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS In this study, we tested whether enhancing left lateralization of pTC(More)
This review updates and consolidates evidence on the safety of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). Safety is here operationally defined by, and limited to, the absence of evidence for a Serious Adverse Effect, the criteria for which are rigorously defined. This review adopts an evidence-based approach, based on an aggregation of experience from(More)
We report a 53-year-old patient (AWF) who has an acquired deficit of audiovisual speech integration, characterized by a perceived temporal mismatch between speech sounds and the sight of moving lips. AWF was less accurate on an auditory digit span task with vision of a speaker's face as compared to a condition in which no visual information from the lower(More)
Cognitive enhancement refers to the improvement of cognitive ability in normal healthy individuals. In this article, we focus on the use of pharmaceutical agents and brain stimulation for cognitive enhancement, reviewing the most common methods of pharmacologic and electronic cognitive enhancement, and the mechanisms by which they are believed to work, the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the correspondence of in vivo quantitative estimates of brain uptake of fluorine 18-labeled flutemetamol with immunohistochemical estimates of amyloid levels in patients who underwent previous biopsy. DESIGN Cross-sectional study of ¹⁸F-flutemetamol positron emission tomography (PET) findings in patients with prior cortical biopsy(More)