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Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) known as Kala-Azar is a serious systemic disease caused by Leishmania donovani parasites (Trypanosomatidae: Kinetoplastida). The disease is prevalent in the Indian Sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. In Africa, the worst affected regions are in Sudan, with an estimated 15,000-20,000 cases annually and Ethiopia with 5,000-7,000(More)
Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity(More)
The efficacy of three suction traps for trapping phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was compared. Traps were baited with Co(2) and used without any light source. CO(2)-baited CDC traps were evaluated either in their standard downdraft orientation or inverted (iCDC traps). Mosquito Magnet-X (MMX) counterflow geometry traps were tested in the(More)
The control of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae), the vectors of leishmaniasis, is directed mostly against adults as larvae develop in unknown or inaccessible habitats. In the current study we tested geraniol, a natural plant-derived product, as a space repellent and the synthetic pyrethroid prallethrin as a diffusible insecticide. Geraniol was(More)
Female phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmit leishmaniasis as they engorge on vertebrate blood required for egg production. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (Scopoli, 1786), the vector of Leishmania major (Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914), the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were not attracted to large horizontal sticky traps(More)
1 Abstract The GEM compiler system is the technology Digital is using to build state-of-the-art compiler products for a variety of languages and hardware /software platforms. Portable, modular software components with carefully specified interfaces simplify the engineering of diverse compilers. A single optimizer, independent of the language and the target(More)
The control of the sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis is problematic because their larvae develop in largely unknown terrestrial habitats making them impervious to available control measures. Furthermore, the behavior patterns of adults of different sand fly species are highly diverse, requiring tailor-made control solutions based upon a profound knowledge(More)
A number of mosquito species avoid predator-inhabited oviposition sites by detecting predator-released kairomones. In the laboratory, we found that when offered de-ionized water and de-ionized water conditioned with Notonecta maculata, gravid Anopheles gambiae females preferentially oviposited into the former. We then conducted further experiments using two(More)
Insecticide-treated vertical net barriers were used to intercept foraging sand flies. Two different nets were draped on fenced enclosures (10 by 10 m; 2 m high) in the central Jordan Valley. One enclosure was draped with a deltamethrin-impregnated net (PermaNet, 225 holes/in2). The holes of this net are sufficiently large to allow sand flies to pass through(More)
The architecture of a production optimizing compiler for Pascal is described, and the structure of the optimizer is detailed. The compiler performs both interprocedural and global optimizations, in addition to optimization of basic blocks. We have found that a high-level structured language such as Pascal provides unique opportunities for effective(More)