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The structure of bacterial communities in first-year spring and summer sea ice differs from that in source seawaters, suggesting selection during ice formation in autumn or taxon-specific mortality in the ice during winter. We tested these hypotheses by weekly sampling (January-March 2004) of first-year winter sea ice (Franklin Bay, Western Arctic) that(More)
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a widespread technique for rapidly fingerprinting microbial communities. Users of T-RFLP frequently overlook the resolving power of well-chosen restriction endonucleases and often fail to report how they chose their enzymes. REPK (Restriction Endonuclease Picker) assists in the rational(More)
Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day.(More)
Colwellia is a genus of mostly psychrophilic halophilic Gammaproteobacteria frequently isolated from polar marine sediments and sea ice. In exploring the capacity of Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H to survive and grow in the liquid brines of sea ice, we detected a duplicated 37 kbp genomic island in its genome based on the abnormally high G + C content. This(More)
Fungi are important parasites of primary producers and nutrient cyclers in aquatic ecosystems. In the Pacific-Arctic domain, fungal parasitism is linked to light intensities and algal stress that can elevate disease incidence on algae and reduce diatom concentrations. Fungi are vastly understudied in the marine realm and knowledge of their function is(More)
A generalisation of the equation used bySalazar (1964) to fit the pressure-volume relationship of normal human lungs between FRC and TLC is found to fit the pressure-volume relationship of a variety of circulatory elements. The equation contains only two fundamental physiologic parameters: one a compliance constant k and the other a maximum element volume(More)
Viruses play a significant role in nutrient cycling within the world’s oceans and are important agents of horizontal gene transfer, but little is know about their entrainment into sea ice or their temporal dynamics once entrained. Nilas, grease ice, pancake ice, first-year sea ice floes up to 78 cm in thickness, and under-ice seawater were sampled widely(More)
We have prepared and studied seventeen thin films ranging in composition from pure silver to pure magnesium fluoride. Using mass thicknesses based on quartz crystal oscillators and physical thicknesses obtained from a stylus profilometer, we have measured the void volume fraction of the films as a function of their composition. We have shown the Ag-MgF(2)(More)