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Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex(More)
The balance between a direct cytopathic effect by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and immune-mediated injury remains unclear. This report aims to test the following hypotheses: (1) that intrahepatic HCV load would correlate with the degree of liver injury; (2) that interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) would decrease intrahepatic HCV-RNA levels. Liver tissues (n = 56) were(More)
BACKGROUND Melasma is an acquired, chronic hypermelanosis for which therapy remains a challenge. OBJECTIVES To compare the efficacy and safety of a triple combination [TC: fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, hydroquinone (HQ) 4%, tretinoin 0.05%] vs. HQ 4% after 8 weeks of treatment of moderate to severe facial melasma in Asian patients. METHODS This was a(More)
Sex workers are not confined to brothels, they also include a variety of individuals who practise part-time in establishments conductive to sexual liaisons. We undertook to study the extent of sex work among masseuses and nightclub hostesses and the level of AIDS and STD knowledge in these 2 groups. The studies were conducted in 1993 and 1996. Altogether(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Most studies in Asia exclude freelance female sex workers because of difficulties in access and the illegality of their work. Data are lacking on their risk behaviors. GOAL To compare sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates, condom use, and health screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore.(More)
Oral sex among female sex workers in Singapore has risen sharply from 27.1% in 1992 to 81.7% in 1997. A prospective cohort study was carried out on 724 female brothel-based sex workers who practised oral sex, to determine the risk of contracting pharyngeal gonorrhoea through inconsistent condom use. The prevalence of consistent condom use for oral sex was(More)
The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 46 female brothel-based sex workers to explore their perceived barriers and approaches in getting clients to use condoms for oral sex. Reasons given by sex workers for not using condoms for oral sex as compared to vaginal sex included self-perception of low vulnerability to AIDS and sexually transmitted(More)
The hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease brain has been shown to be highly oxidized compared to age-matched controls. One of the most sensitive targets of oxidation is anionic sulfur which can be found within the active site of members of the cysteine-protease family. Thus, while members of the cysteine-protease family such as the calpains and caspases have(More)
Thiol-proteases play important roles in many cellular processes, including maintenance of protein homeostasis and execution of cell death. Therefore, determining how this family of enzymes is regulated is critical for our understanding of both physiological and pathological conditions. Because these proteases require a reduced cysteine residue for activity,(More)