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We have examined changes in the chromatin landscape during muscle differentiation by mapping the genome-wide location of ten key histone marks and transcription factors in mouse myoblasts and terminally differentiated myotubes, providing an exceptionally rich dataset that has enabled discovery of key epigenetic changes underlying myogenesis. Using this(More)
To identify the compendium of distal regulatory elements that govern myogenic differentiation, we generated chromatin state maps based on histone modifications and recruitment of factors that typify enhancers in myoblasts and myotubes. We found a striking concordance between the locations of these newly defined enhancers, MyoD1-binding events, and noncoding(More)
Active Ras and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathways contribute to the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma multiformes (GBM). Here we show that the Ras inhibitor trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) exhibits profound antioncogenic effects in U87 GBM cells. FTS inhibited active Ras and attenuated Ras signaling to extracellular signal-regulated(More)
BACKGROUND Signals between stem cells and stroma are important in establishing the stem cell niche. However, very little is known about the regulation of any mammalian stem cell niche as pure isolates of stem cells and their adjacent mesenchyme are not readily available. The prostate offers a unique model to study signals between stem cells and their(More)
Deregulation of Ras pathways results in complex abnormalities of multiple signaling cascades that contribute to human malignancies. Ras is therefore considered an appropriate target for cancer therapy. In light of the complexity of the deregulated Ras pathway, it is important to decipher at the molecular level the response of cancer cells to Ras inhibitors(More)
As the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, the small GTPase Ras is a logical target for anticancer drug development. Ras proteins serve as molecular switches regulating many key signaling processes, including growth-promoting pathways critical for normal cell functions that go awry in cancer. How to interfere selectively and successfully in(More)
Constitutive activation of Ras pathways plays a critical role in cancer development and maintenance. Inhibitors of such pathways are already in use for cancer therapy, with significant but as yet only partial success in the most deadly types of human cancers, against which even combinations of Ras-pathway inhibitors with classic cytotoxic drugs or(More)
The Ras inhibitor farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) has been shown to induce apoptosis in glioblastoma multiforme, but its mechanism of action was unknown. We show that FTS or dominant-negative Ras, by deregulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Akt signaling, decreases survivin gene transcripts in U87 glioblastoma multiforme, leading to(More)
Monomethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me1) is a well-established feature of enhancers and promoters, although its function is unknown. Here, we uncover roles for H3K4me1 in diverse cell types. Remarkably, we find that MLL3/4 provokes monomethylation of promoter regions and the conditional repression of muscle and inflammatory response genes in(More)
Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in human males. Progression of these tumors is facilitated by autocrine/paracrine growth factors which activate critical signaling cascades that promote prostate cancer cell growth, survival and migration. Among these, Ras pathways have a major role. Here we examined the effect of the Ras(More)