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All aspects of Wallerian degeneration (WD)--axonal breakdown, glial and macrophage responses, and clearance of myelin debris--have generally been considered to occur more slowly in the central nervous system (CNS) than in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We reevaluated this issue by comparing the temporal pattern of Wallerian degeneration in nerve(More)
Macrophages are important effector cells in immune-mediated demyelination. Current concepts regarding their entry and activation focus on the effects of T-cell-derived cytokines. This presentation describes the responses of macrophages and microglia to a non-inflammatory, non-immune injury, Wallerian degeneration. During Wallerian degeneration in the(More)
The pivotal event in Wallerian degeneration is the breakdown of the axon. Establishing the pathophysiology of axonal degeneration has implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of other types of nerve degenerations. A key aspect of the pathophysiology is the spatiotemporal pattern of spread after transection, an issue that has remained(More)
The antinociceptive and temperature responses to morphine were compared in male and female rats from two different strains. Males of both the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Furth strains were slightly more responsive to the acute actions of morphine than were females of the same strain. However, Wistar-Furth animals required approximately twice the dose of(More)
To address the issue of feline manic responses to morphine, studies were designed to examine the effects of low doses of intravenous morphine on cat behavior with emphasis placed on motor activity changes. An adaptation of an existing scoring system was used in an effort to quantify and describe behavioral patterns or shifts in activity patterns occurring(More)
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a widely used drug of abuse; however, little is known of its effects on neuroendocrine function. The present study characterized the effects of the acute and chronic administration of PCP on the release of adrenocorticotropin, corticosterone and prolactin in the rat. For the acute studies, PCP hydrochloride (0.5-10.0 mg/kg s.c.) was(More)
Statistically significant diurnal variations in plasma growth hormone (GH) were found to occur in handled male rats. Peak GH values (at miday) appeared to be inversely correlated with the diurnal peak of plasma corticosterone(CS) which occurred after the onset of darkness. Brain amines were examined in the following regions: cortex, striatum, septum,(More)