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The use of the Norland-Cameron Bone Mineral Analyzer (BMA) to measure the cross-sectional moment of inertia of the mineral in a long bone is described and data regarding the usefulness and precision of the method are presented. The correlation coefficients between BMA-measured CSMI and that obtained from cross-sectional geometry were 0.99 both for a series(More)
The fossil record shows that bone remodeling has existed since the earliest large vertebrates became weight-bearing on land, but the functions of remodeling have long been debated. The principal protagonists in this debate have been those favoring a mechanical function and those asserting that remodeling serves to move calcium in and out of the skeleton. In(More)
The accumulation of bone microdamage has been proposed as one factor that contributes to increased skeletal fragility with age and that may increase the risk for fracture in older women. This paper reviews the current status and understanding of microdamage physiology and its importance to skeletal fragility. Several questions are addressed: Does(More)
It has been suggested that osteonal remodeling is triggered by bone microdamage. The validity of this theory rests on the assumption that loading within the physiological range will produce substantial microdamage with relatively few load cycles. The object of the first experiment was to determine threshold values required to consistently produce fatigue(More)
The effects of walking and aerobic dancing on the bones of 73 recently postmenopausal women have been compared by photon absorptiometry of the distal radius with a control group who did not exercise. The period of observation was six months. Results showed that the control group and the walking group lost statistically significant amounts of bone mineral(More)
A theory is developed to resolve several inconsistencies between current concepts and observations about bone remodeling. For example, the observation that remodeling increases both when mechanical loading is excessively low, that is, in a disuse state, and when it is excessively high, producing substantial fatigue damage, is contrary to the widely held(More)
Alendronate, a bisphosphonate drug, has shown promise in reducing remodeling and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Alendronate acts directly on the osteoclast, inhibiting its resorption capability. This inhibition of osteoclast activity has led to the use of bisphosphonates in the treatment of the osteogenesis imperfecta condition. Treatment of(More)