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The molecular details of the biogenesis of double-membraned autophagosomes are poorly understood. We identify the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AAA-adenosine triphosphatase Cdc48 and its substrate-recruiting cofactor Shp1/Ubx1 as novel components needed for autophagosome biogenesis. In mammals, the Cdc48 homologue p97/VCP and the Shp1 homologue p47 mediate Golgi(More)
Efficient detection and removal of superfluous or damaged organelles are crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis and to assure cell survival. Growing evidence shows that organelles or parts of them can be removed by selective subtypes of otherwise unselective macroautophagy and microautophagy. This requires both the adaptation of the core autophagic(More)
Autophagosome biogenesis requires two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems. One couples ubiquitin-like Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine, and the other couples ubiquitin-like Atg12 to Atg5. Atg12~Atg5 then forms a heterodimer with Atg16. Membrane recruitment of the Atg12~Atg5/Atg16 complex defines the Atg8 lipidation site. Lipidation requires a PI3P-containing(More)
PROPPINs (β-propellers that bind polyphosphoinositides) are a family of PtdIns3P- and PtdIns(3,5)P2-binding proteins that play an important role in autophagy. We analyzed PROPPIN-membrane binding through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), stopped-flow measurements, mutagenesis studies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. ITC measurements showed(More)
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