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On the basis of a large body of experimental data the notion that glaucoma damages retinal ganglion cells and central areas of the visual system has been put forward. The mechanisms underlying glaucomatous involvement of the central areas are not known: the most likely hypothesis is that this event is the result of an anterograde transynaptic(More)
OBJECTIVE Prolonged human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to neurological debilitation, including motor dysfunction and frank dementia. Although pharmacological control of HIV infection is now possible, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain intractable. Here, we report that chronic treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) and(More)
The pathophysiological processes implicated in ischemic brain damage are strongly affected by an inflammatory reaction characterized by activation of immune cells and release of soluble mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in ischemic brain injury, however, to date, the(More)
Autophagy is an intracellular membrane trafficking pathway controlling the delivery of cytoplasmic material to the lysosomes for degradation. It plays an important role in cell homeostasis in both normal settings and abnormal, stressful conditions. It is now recognised that an imbalance in the autophagic process can impact basal cell functions and this has(More)
Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation pathway that regulates long-lived proteins and organelles turnover. This process occurs at basal levels in all cells but it is rapidly upregulated in response to starvation and cellular stress. Although being recently implicated in neurodegeneration, it remains still unclear whether autophagy has a(More)
In addition to its effects in the hypothalamus to control body weight, leptin is involved in the regulation of neuronal function, development and survival. Recent findings have highlighted the neuroprotective effects of leptin against ischemic brain injury; however, to date, little is known about the role performed by the signal transducer and activator of(More)
(-)-Linalool is a natural compound with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. The antinociceptive action of linalool has been reported in several models of inflammatory pain. However, its effects in neuropathic pain have not been investigated. Here, we used the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain and studied the effects of(More)
Neuroinflammation is often associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is one of the main mediators of inflammation, and IL-1beta expression in the brain is rapidly upregulated in response to acute(More)
Loss of retinal ganglion cells occurs in a variety of pathological conditions, including central retinal artery occlusion, diabetes and glaucoma. Using an experimental model of retinal ischemia induced by transiently raise the intraocular pressure (IOP), In this study, we report the original observation that ischemic retinal ganglion cells death is(More)
Abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory processes that accompany most central nervous system disease. In particular, early upregulation of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 has been shown to contribute to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and to death of neurons in ischemic(More)