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OBJECTIVE Prolonged human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to neurological debilitation, including motor dysfunction and frank dementia. Although pharmacological control of HIV infection is now possible, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain intractable. Here, we report that chronic treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) and(More)
On the basis of a large body of experimental data the notion that glaucoma damages retinal ganglion cells and central areas of the visual system has been put forward. The mechanisms underlying glaucomatous involvement of the central areas are not known: the most likely hypothesis is that this event is the result of an anterograde transynaptic(More)
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) is one of the best diagnostic non-invasive imaging techniques to evaluate microcirculation in vivo and is increasingly employed in the field of rheumatology. Indeed, at present, the most important utility of NVC is in the identification of microvascular involvement in many rheumatic diseases, particularly in systemic(More)
Autophagy is an intracellular membrane trafficking pathway controlling the delivery of cytoplasmic material to the lysosomes for degradation. It plays an important role in cell homeostasis in both normal settings and abnormal, stressful conditions. It is now recognised that an imbalance in the autophagic process can impact basal cell functions and this has(More)
(-)-Linalool is a natural compound with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. The antinociceptive action of linalool has been reported in several models of inflammatory pain. However, its effects in neuropathic pain have not been investigated. Here, we used the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain and studied the effects of(More)
Abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory processes that accompany most central nervous system disease. In particular, early upregulation of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 has been shown to contribute to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and to death of neurons in ischemic(More)
Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation pathway that regulates long-lived proteins and organelles turnover. This process occurs at basal levels in all cells but it is rapidly upregulated in response to starvation and cellular stress. Although being recently implicated in neurodegeneration, it remains still unclear whether autophagy has a(More)
Infection with HIV-1 frequently affects the brain and causes NeuroAIDS prior to the development of overt AIDS. The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 interacts with host CD4 and chemokine co-receptors to initiate infection of macrophages and lymphocytes. In addition, the virus or fragments of it, such as gp120, cause macrophages to produce neurotoxins and trigger(More)
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) is a fruit most knowledgeable for its essential oil (BEO) used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders and cancer pain though the rational basis for such applications awaits to be discovered. The behavioural and EEG spectrum power effects of BEO correlate well with its(More)
Despite the large body of experimental evidence demonstrating the neuroprotective properties of 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2) both in vitro and in vivo experimental models of neuronal injury, the exact mechanisms implicated in neuroprotection have not been fully delineated. Some experimental evidence highlight a role for the antioxidant properties of(More)