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Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) regulates many pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system, including pain perception, convulsions and neurotoxicity, and increasing evidence points to its neuroprotective action. In the present study, we report that PEA, acting as a ligand of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, might regulate(More)
On the basis of a large body of experimental data the notion that glaucoma damages retinal ganglion cells and central areas of the visual system has been put forward. The mechanisms underlying glaucomatous involvement of the central areas are not known: the most likely hypothesis is that this event is the result of an anterograde transynaptic(More)
Neuropathic pain consequent to peripheral nerve injury has been associated with local inflammation. Following noxious stimulation afferent fibres release substance P (SP) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), which are closely related to oedema formation and plasma leakage. The effect of the anandamide transport blocker AM404 has been studied on(More)
BACKGROUND The response to antiviral therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is determined by virological, environmental and genetic factors. OBJECTIVE The hypothesis was tested that the expression of specific genes and their haplotype frequencies can differentiate between non-responders (NRs) and sustained virological responders (SVRs) to(More)
Excitotoxicity has been implicated in the retinal neuronal loss in several ocular pathologies including glaucoma. Dysfunction of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters is often a key component of the cascade leading to excitotoxic cell death. In the retina, glutamate transport is mainly operated by the glial glutamate transporter GLAST and the neuronal(More)
OBJECTIVE Prolonged human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection leads to neurological debilitation, including motor dysfunction and frank dementia. Although pharmacological control of HIV infection is now possible, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain intractable. Here, we report that chronic treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) and(More)
Aflatoxins are natural contaminants frequently found both in food and feed. Many of them exert immunomodulatory properties in mammals; therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate immune-effects of AFB1, AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2, alone and differently combined, in J774A.1 murine macrophages. MTT assay showed that AFB1, alone and combined with AFB2,(More)
The pathophysiological processes implicated in ischemic brain damage are strongly affected by an inflammatory reaction characterized by activation of immune cells and release of soluble mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β has been implicated in ischemic brain injury, however, to date, the(More)
Recent studies have highlighted that female sex hormones represent potential neuroprotective agents against damage produced by acute and chronic injuries in the adult brain. Clinical reports have documented the effectiveness of estrogens to attenuate symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease, and to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease and(More)
(-)-Linalool is a natural compound with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. The antinociceptive action of linalool has been reported in several models of inflammatory pain. However, its effects in neuropathic pain have not been investigated. Here, we used the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model of neuropathic pain and studied the effects of(More)