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Subjects with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection display increased activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may play a role in both HIV-related neurodegenerative processes and disease progression. It has been speculated that the HIV coat protein gp120 may be responsible for these changes, and previous experimental(More)
The recent cloning of a second estrogen receptor (ER) provided a new tool to investigate and clarify how estrogens are capable of communicating with the brain and influence gene expression and neural function. The purpose of the present study was to define the neuroanatomical organization of each receptor subtype using a side-by-side approach and to(More)
Methylmercury (MeHg) affects several parameters of cholinergic function. These alterations are thought to play a role in MeHg neurotoxicity. In vitro experiments have indicated that MeHg acts as a strong competitive inhibitor of radioligand binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) in rat brain. Furthermore, rat brain mAChRs share several(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the impact of the menopause transition on body weight and body composition. METHODS We conducted a search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2012) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: 'menopause', 'midlife',(More)
BACKGROUND Balanced X;autosome translocations interrupting the 'critical region' of the long arm of the human X chromosome are often associated with premature ovarian failure (POF). However, the mechanisms leading to X-linked ovarian dysfunction are largely unknown, as the majority of the X chromosome breakpoints have been mapped to gene-free genomic(More)
To assess the neuroendocrine correlates of menstrual status migrainosus (MSM) and menstrual migraine (MM), we evaluated the prolactin (PRL) and cortisol responses to the direct central serotoninergic (5-HT) agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) administered orally (0.5 mg/kg) during the follicular (FP: +6, +8) and luteal phases (LP: -4, -6) of the(More)
Circulating levels of the neuro-hypophysial nonapeptide oxytocin increase during sexual arousal and orgasm in both men and women. A few studies have evaluated the effect of the menstrual cycle on plasma oxytocin in normally cycling, sexually active, healthy fertile women using or not using contraceptive pills. In 20 ovulating women and 10 women taking an(More)
The present study investigated the effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and immobilization stress on the genetic expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R) in the brains of conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats. One group of rats was killed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 hr after a single(More)
Gonadal steroids have many effects in the central nervous system. Through a feedback mechanism, they influence the synthesis and release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or pituitary gonadotropic hormones (luteinizing hormone, LH, and follicle stimulating hormone, FSH). Endogenous opioid peptides (EOPs) represent one of the key(More)