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Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an orally transmitted virus, viral transmission through the oropharyngeal mucosal epithelium is not well understood. In this study, we investigated how EBV traverses polarized human oral epithelial cells without causing productive infection. We found that EBV may be transcytosed through oral epithelial cells(More)
The expression of cyclin E and that of a few other bona fide cell cycle regulatory genes periodically oscillates every cycle in proliferating cells. Although numerous experiments have documented the role of E2F sites and E2F activities in the control of these genes as cells exit from G(0) to move through the initial G(1)/S phase transition, almost nothing(More)
We previously showed that expression of the anti-HIV innate proteins human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2) and hBD3 in adult oral epithelial cells reduces HIV transepithelial transmission by inactivation of virus. However, fetal/infant oral epithelia lack beta-defensin expression, leading to transmission of HIV. The mechanisms of hBD2- and hBD3-mediated HIV(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes hairy leukoplakia (HL), a benign lesion of oral epithelium that occurs primarily in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immunodeficiency. However, the mechanisms of EBV infection of oral epithelium are poorly understood. Analysis of HL tissues shows a small number of EBV-positive intraepithelial(More)
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated epithelial lesions is substantially higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the increased risk of HPV infection in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. We found that HIV proteins tat and gp120(More)
The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 is a major viral oncoprotein that is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). Two S100 family calcium-binding proteins, macrophage inhibitory-related factor protein 8 (MRP-8) and MRP-14, form a protein complex, MRP-8/14, that inactivates CKII. The MRP-8/14 protein complex may inhibit CKII-mediated E7(More)
While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through the adult oral route is rare, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through the neonatal/infant oral and/or gastrointestinal route is common. To study the mechanisms of cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission across adult oral and neonatal/infant oral/intestinal epithelia, we established ex(More)
Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adult populations is rare. However, HIV spread across fetal/neonatal oropharyngeal epithelia could be important in mother-to-child transmission. Analysis of HIV transmission across polarized adult and fetal oral epithelial cells revealed that HIV transmigrates through both adult and fetal cells.(More)
We previously reported that BMRF-2, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein, binds to beta1 family integrins and is important for EBV infection of polarized oral epithelial cells. To further study the functions of BMRF-2, we constructed a recombinant EBV that lacks BMRF-2 expression by homologous recombination in B95-8 cells. We found that lack of BMRF-2(More)
We previously reported that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BMRF-2 protein plays an important role in EBV infection of polarized oral epithelial cells by interacting with beta1 and alphav family integrins. Here we show that infection of polarized oral epithelial cells with B27-BMRF-2(low) recombinant virus, expressing a low level of BMRF-2, resulted in(More)