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Over three billion people are currently micronutrient (i.e. micronutrient elements and vitamins) malnourished, resulting in egregious societal costs including learning disabilities among children, increased morbidity and mortality rates, lower worker productivity, and high healthcare costs, all factors diminishing human potential, felicity, and national(More)
Selenium (Se) plays an indispensable role in human nutrition and has been implicated to have important health benefits, including being a cancer preventative agent. While different forms of Se vary in their anticarcinogenic efficacy, Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC) has been demonstrated to be one of the most effective chemopreventative compounds. Broccoli(More)
Micronutrient malnutrition (e.g. Fe, Zn and vitamin A deficiencies) now afflicts over 40% of the world's population and is increasing especially in many developing nations. Green revolution cropping systems may have inadvertently contributed to the growth in micronutrient deficiencies in resource-poor populations. Current interventions to eliminate these(More)
Phytate (inositol-hexa-phosphate) has an important role in plants but it also may have anti-nutritional properties in animals and humans. While there is debate within the plant breeding and nutrition communities regarding an optimum level in grain, there appears to be little information at the molecular level for the genetics of this trait, and its(More)
Nickel was established as an essential micronutrient for the growth of temperate cereal crops. Grain from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv ;Onda'; containing 40 to 80 nanograms of Ni per gram dry weight) grown in solution culture with negligible Ni concentrations (< 30 nanograms of Ni per liter) exhibited greatly reduced germination rates (i.e. 50% less than(More)
The bioavailability of Fe from 24 select genotypes of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds containing a range of concentrations of Fe, myo-inositol pentaphosphate plus phytic acid (IP5+IP6), and tannins was studied using a rat model. Bean accessions, selected from field trials for their variations in Fe, phytate, and tannin seed concentrations, were grown in(More)
This study utilized an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model to determine the levels of ascorbic acid (AA) and "meat factor" needed to promote Fe absorption from Fe complexed with phytic acid (PA) or tannic acid (TA). AA reversed the inhibition of Fe absorption by PA beginning at a molar ratio of 1:20:1 (Fe:PA:AA) but essentially had no effect on the Fe(More)
Human existence requires that agriculture provide at least 50 nutrients (e.g., vitamins, minerals, trace elements, amino acids, essential fatty acids) in amounts needed to meet metabolic demands during all seasons. If national food systems do not meet these demands, mortality and morbidity rates increase, worker productivity declines, livelihoods are(More)
Environmental pollution by phosphorus from animal waste is a major problem in agriculture because simple-stomached animals, such as swine, poultry, and fish, cannot digest phosphorus (as phytate) present in plant feeds. To alleviate this problem, a phytase from Aspergillus niger PhyA is widely used as a feed additive to hydrolyze phytate-phosphorus.(More)
Soybean plants deprived of nickel accumulated toxic concentrations of urea (2.5 percent) in necrotic lesions on their leaflet tips. This occurred regardless of whether the plants were supplied with inorganic nitrogen or were dependent on nitrogen fixation. Nickel deprivation resulted in delayed nodulation and in a reduction of early growth. Addition of(More)