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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanistic link can be exploited for therapeutic purposes with orally active chemical chaperones. 4-Phenyl butyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid alleviated ER stress in cells and whole animals.(More)
Specific neuronal mRNAs are localized in dendrites, often concentrated in dendritic spines and spine synapses, where they are translated. The molecular mechanism of localization is mostly unknown. Here we have explored the roles of A2 response element (A2RE), a cis-acting signal for oligodendrocyte RNA trafficking, and its cognate trans-acting factor,(More)
The hnRNPs (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins) are RNA-binding proteins with important roles in multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including the packaging of nascent transcripts, alternative splicing and translational regulation. Although they share some general characteristics, they vary greatly in terms of their domain composition and(More)
Trafficking of mRNA molecules from the nucleus to distal processes in neural cells is mediated by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 trans-acting factors. Although hnRNP A2/B1 is alternatively spliced to generate four isoforms, most functional studies have not distinguished between these isoforms. Here, we show, using isoform-specific(More)
The hnRNP A/B proteins are among the most abundant RNA-binding proteins, forming the core of the ribonucleoprotein complex that associates with nascent transcripts in eukaryotic cells. There are several paralogs in this subfamily, each of which is subject to alternative transcript splicing and post-translational modifications. The structural diversity of(More)
The cis-acting response element, A2RE, which is sufficient for cytoplasmic mRNA trafficking in oligodendrocytes, binds a small group of rat brain proteins. Predominant among these is heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2, a trans-acting factor for cytoplasmic trafficking of RNAs bearing A2RE-like sequences. We have now identified the other(More)
The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A/B are a family of RNA-binding proteins that participate in various aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including mRNA trafficking, telomere maintenance, and splicing. They are both regulators and targets of alternative splicing, and the patterns of alternative splicing of their transcripts have(More)
Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2 and B1 has been observed in a variety of tumour types, however, it is unknown whether this dysregulation is a consequence of, or a driving force for, unregulated cell proliferation. We have shown that the levels of hnRNPs A1, A2 and B1, but not A3, are modulated during the cell cycle of(More)
Alternative RNA splicing in multicellular organisms is regulated by a large group of proteins of mainly unknown origin. To predict the functions of these proteins, classification of their domains at the sequence and structural level is necessary. We have focused on four groups of splicing regulators, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP),(More)