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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a key link between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we provide evidence that this mechanistic link can be exploited for therapeutic purposes with orally active chemical chaperones. 4-Phenyl butyric acid and taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid alleviated ER stress in cells and whole animals.(More)
The hnRNPs (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins) are RNA-binding proteins with important roles in multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including the packaging of nascent transcripts, alternative splicing and translational regulation. Although they share some general characteristics, they vary greatly in terms of their domain composition and(More)
The hnRNP A/B proteins are among the most abundant RNA-binding proteins, forming the core of the ribonucleoprotein complex that associates with nascent transcripts in eukaryotic cells. There are several paralogs in this subfamily, each of which is subject to alternative transcript splicing and post-translational modifications. The structural diversity of(More)
Specific neuronal mRNAs are localized in dendrites, often concentrated in dendritic spines and spine synapses, where they are translated. The molecular mechanism of localization is mostly unknown. Here we have explored the roles of A2 response element (A2RE), a cis-acting signal for oligodendrocyte RNA trafficking, and its cognate trans-acting factor,(More)
The cis-acting response element, A2RE, which is sufficient for cytoplasmic mRNA trafficking in oligodendrocytes, binds a small group of rat brain proteins. Predominant among these is heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2, a trans-acting factor for cytoplasmic trafficking of RNAs bearing A2RE-like sequences. We have now identified the other(More)
Autoimmunity has long been linked to myocarditis and its sequela, dilated cardiomyopathy, the leading causes of heart failure in young patients. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined, with most clinical investigations focused on humoral autoimmunity as the target for intervention. Here, we show that the α-isoform of myosin heavy chain(More)
The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A/B are a family of RNA-binding proteins that participate in various aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including mRNA trafficking, telomere maintenance, and splicing. They are both regulators and targets of alternative splicing, and the patterns of alternative splicing of their transcripts have(More)
Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2 and B1 has been observed in a variety of tumour types, however, it is unknown whether this dysregulation is a consequence of, or a driving force for, unregulated cell proliferation. We have shown that the levels of hnRNPs A1, A2 and B1, but not A3, are modulated during the cell cycle of(More)
Over-expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 is regarded as an early marker for several cancers. This protein is associated with proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and has itself been described as a proto-oncogene. Our earlier experiments drew a connection between hnRNP A2/B1 levels and cell proliferation and raised the(More)