Ross J. Baldessarini

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Clozapine (CLZ) and its metabolites norclozapine (NOR) and clozapine-N-oxide (NOX) were assayed in rat serum and brain tissue after intraperitoneal injection of CLZ. Clozapine levels rose with dose, averaging 28 ng/ml (87 nmol/L) serum per milligram/kilogram dose. Brain- and serum-CLZ levels correlated closely, averaging 24-fold higher in brain.(More)
Perhaps the greatest surprise to a British reader is to find that a section entitled Disorders of Movement is yet another metabolic section with clinical neurophysiology reduced to bare essentials. Lower motor neurone physiology is largely from laboratory animals, and the introduction to its disorders has 794 references with 11 pages on hypothetical (sic)(More)
BACKGROUND Users of typical antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, less is known regarding the cardiac safety of the atypical antipsychotic drugs, which have largely replaced the older agents in clinical practice. METHODS We calculated the adjusted incidence of sudden cardiac death(More)
OBJECTIVE Potency equivalents for anti-psychotic drugs are required to guide clinical dosing and for designing and interpreting research studies. Available dosing guidelines are limited by the methods and data from which they were generated. METHOD With a two-step Delphi method, the authors surveyed a diverse group of international clinical and research(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to assess the twentieth-century literature on outcome in schizophrenia for historical trends that might be associated with changes in diagnostic and therapeutic practice and to test the hypothesis that both improved biological treatment and changes in diagnostic criteria have influenced outcome. METHOD Meta-analysis of(More)
Postnatal development of dopamine D(1), D(2) and D(4) receptors in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, frontal cortex and hippocampus was assessed in rat brain between postnatal days 7 and 60. In the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens, density of all three receptor subtypes increased to a peak at postnatal day 28, then declined significantly in both(More)
Clozapine (CLZ) and metabolites norclozapine and clozapine-N-oxide were assayed with a new, sensitive (2 pmol), and selective method in 68 serum samples from 44 psychotic subjects, 20 to 54 years old, ill 16 years, and treated with CLZ for 2.2 years (currently at 294 mg, 3.4 mg/kg daily). CLZ levels averaged 239 ng/ml (0.73 microM; 92 ng/ml per mg/kg dose)(More)
Bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder is a common and severe illness. It is also potentially fatal as a result of accidents and increased mortality associated with comorbid substance use and medical illnesses, but its highest lethality results from suicide. Suicide rates, averaging 0.4% per year in men and women diagnosed with bipolar disorder, are >20-fold(More)
Conventional antipsychotic drugs, used for a half century to treat a range of major psychiatric disorders, are being replaced in clinical practice by modern "atypical" antipsychotics, including aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone among others. As a class, the newer drugs have been promoted as being broadly clinically(More)