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After exposure to low density lipoprotein (LDL) that had been minimally modified by oxidation (MM-LDL), human endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) cultured separately or together produced 2- to 3-fold more monocyte chemotactic activity than did control cells or cells exposed to freshly isolated LDL. This increase in monocyte chemotactic(More)
The tunica media of thoracic aortas from female rats in age from newborn to 12 weeks were analyzed quantitatively by using stereologic techniques in the electron microscope. Collagen, elastin, smooth muscle, myofilaments, Golgi apparatus, ergastoplasm, and surface to volume ratios were among those components quantified. These parameters were correlated with(More)
The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) is redox-regulated by posttranslational thiol modifications of cysteine-674 to regulate smooth muscle relaxation and migration. To detect oxidation of cysteine-674 that irreversibly prevents redox regulation, a polyclonal, sequence-specific antibody was developed toward a peptide containing cysteine-674(More)
In cholesterol-fed rabbits the extent of monocyte involvement in atherogenesis may be influenced by the level of circulating leukocytes during hypercholesterolemia. We characterized the leukocytosis in rabbits fed either a 0.25% or a 0.1% cholesterol-enriched diet (0.25% or 0.1% rabbits, respectively). Circulating leukocytes were elevated by 1 week of(More)
In a previous publication the author and his co-workers demonstrated that atherosclerotic lesion development in the aorta of hypercholesterolemic pigs was preceded by intimal penetration of blood-borne mononuclear cells, and that medial smooth muscle cells were not involved in the formation of early fatty lesions in this model. The current study shows that(More)
BACKGROUND Low endothelial shear stress (ESS) promotes the development of atherosclerosis; however, its role in the progression of atherosclerotic plaques and evolution to inflamed high-risk plaques has not been studied. Our hypothesis was that the lowest values of ESS are responsible for the development of high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques(More)
Patients with diabetes are at higher risk for atherosclerotic disease than nondiabetic individuals with other comparable risk factors. Studies examining mechanisms underlying diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis have been limited by the lack of suitable humanoid animal models. In this study, diabetes was superimposed on a well-characterized swine model of(More)
A defined role in the atherogenic sequence is proposed for the circulating monocyte. The author has been able to demonstrate a "monocyte clearance system" in which large numbers of circulating monocytes invade the intima of lesion-prone areas in arteries, become phagocytic, and accumulate lipid. A fatty cell lesion results. Once lipid-laden, foam cells(More)
Abnormal HDL metabolism may contribute to the increased atherosclerosis associated with diabetes. The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is an atheroprotective cell protein that mediates cholesterol transport from cells to apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein in HDL. Because formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is associated(More)
To understand the signaling mechanisms of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor-A (NPRA), we studied the effect of the ANP/NPRA system on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), with particular emphasis on the extracellular-regulated kinase (Erk2) and stress-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC).(More)