Ross D. Zafonte

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Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), also referred to as concussion, remains a controversial diagnosis because the brain often appears quite normal on conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Such conventional tools, however, do not adequately depict brain injury in mTBI because they are not sensitive to detecting(More)
BACKGROUND Decompressive craniectomy has historically served as a salvage procedure to control intracranial pressure after severe traumatic brain injury. We assessed the safety and feasibility of performing craniectomy as the initial surgical intervention. METHODS Of 29 consecutive patients undergoing emergent decompression for severe traumatic brain(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the reliability of the Ashworth Scale and the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS) in poststroke patients with upper-limb spasticity and functional disability. DESIGN Single-center trial. SETTING University medical center. PARTICIPANTS Nine patients > or = 6 months poststroke with upper-limb spasticity and impairment in the areas of(More)
Pharmacological management of neurobehavioral disorders following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common practice. However, the evidence available to guide this practice remains sparse. This review summarizes, in brief, the state of knowledge, organized via a time continuum from injury as well as by symptom complex. The areas of neuroprotection,(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relation between selected acute injury and patient characteristics and subsequent return to work 1 to 5 years postinjury. DESIGN Longitudinal design with prospectively collected data. Data were collected on patients at the time of injury and each year postinjury for up to 5 years. SETTING Four medical centers in the(More)
Dopamine (DA) systems are implicated in cognitive deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Rodent studies have demonstrated that both environmental enrichment (EE) and sex hormones can influence DA systems. The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a crucial role in regulating DA transmission, and previous work shows that DAT is decreased after TBI in(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess insomnia in a rehabilitation population, the authors examined the utility and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The assessment of insomnia is relevant to the treatment of traumatic brain injury at the postacute level and routine screening for insomnia may be enhanced by the availability of a standardized,(More)
This investigation evaluated yearly trends in charges and lengths of stay for patients with brain injury in acute care and rehabilitation settings over a 7 year period. Data was collected from 800 consecutive patients enrolled in four NIDRR Model Systems Traumatic Brain Injury programmes. Acute care daily charges showed almost routine increases, averaging(More)
OBJECT No definitive treatment exists to restore lost brain function following a stroke. Transplantation of cultured neuronal cells has been shown to be safe and effective in animal models of stroke and safe in a Phase 1 human trial. In the present study the authors tested the usefulness of human neuron transplantation followed by participation in a 2-month(More)
Female sex hormones are acutely neuroprotective in experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Because hormonal profiles are known to vary with estrous cycle stage, the purpose of this study was to evaluate how pre-injury estrous stage affects motor and cognitive performance after experimental TBI. We also sought to compare post-injury behavioral(More)