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ATRX (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 family of chromatin remodeling proteins. Besides the ATPase/helicase domain at its C terminus, it contains a PHD-like zinc finger at the N terminus. Mutations in the ATRX gene are associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) often accompanied by alpha thalassemia(More)
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell growth acting via two independent targets, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and 4EBP1. While each is known to regulate translational efficiency, the mechanism by which they control cell growth remains unclear. In addition to increased initiation of translation, the accelerated synthesis and(More)
Deregulated ribosomal RNA synthesis is associated with uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation. RNA polymerase (Pol) I, the multiprotein complex that synthesizes rRNA, is activated widely in cancer. Thus, selective inhibitors of Pol I may offer a general therapeutic strategy to block cancer cell proliferation. Coupling medicinal chemistry efforts to tandem(More)
Increased transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) by RNA Polymerase I is a common feature of human cancer, but whether it is required for the malignant phenotype remains unclear. We show that rDNA transcription can be therapeutically targeted with the small molecule CX-5461 to selectively kill B-lymphoma cells in vivo while maintaining a viable(More)
Urotensin II (UII) is a somatostatin-like peptide recently identified as a potent vasoconstrictor. In this study, we examined whether UII promotes cardiac remodeling through nonhemodynamic effects on the myocardium. In a rat model of heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI), increased UII peptide and UII receptor protein expression was observed in(More)
Ribosomal transcription in mammals is regulated in response to growth, differentiation, disease, and aging, but the mechanisms of this regulation have remained unresolved. We show that epidermal growth factor induces immediate, ERK1/2-dependent activation of endogenous ribosomal transcription, while inactivation of ERK1/2 causes an equally immediate(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) may cause cardiac hypertrophy via type 1 Ang II receptors (AT(1)) on cardiomyocytes and through growth factors released from cardiac fibroblasts. Whereas cardiomyocyte-specific AT(1) receptor expression produces cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in vivo, delineation of the signals that mediate growth to Ang II is challenging because(More)
The centromere is a complex structure, the components and assembly pathway of which remain inadequately defined. Here, we demonstrate that centromeric alpha-satellite RNA and proteins CENPC1 and INCENP accumulate in the human interphase nucleolus in an RNA polymerase I-dependent manner. The nucleolar targeting of CENPC1 and INCENP requires alpha-satellite(More)
We have investigated the distribution of U3 snRNA and rRNA in HeLa cells and normal rat kidney cells during interphase and mitosis. U3 snRNA, known to be involved in pre-rRNA processing, was detected in nucleoli and coiled bodies during interphase, whereas rRNA was distributed in the nucleoli and throughout the cytoplasm. By comparison, ribosomal protein S6(More)
RATIONALE The high morbidity/mortality of atherosclerosis is typically precipitated by plaque rupture and consequent thrombosis. However, research on underlying mechanisms and therapeutic approaches is limited by the lack of animal models that reproduce plaque instability observed in humans. OBJECTIVE Development and use of a mouse model of plaque rupture(More)