Ross C. Brownson

Learn More
The Guide to Community Preventive Service's methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the effectiveness of various approaches to increasing physical activity: informational, behavioral and social, and environmental and policy approaches. Changes in physical activity behavior and aerobic capacity were used to assess effectiveness. Two(More)
Personal, program-based, and environmental barriers to physical activity were explored among a U.S. population-derived sample of 2,912 women 40 years of age and older. Factors significantly associated with inactivity included American Indian ethnicity, older age, less education, lack of energy, lack of hills in one's neighborhood, absence of enjoyable(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examined (1) descriptive patterns in perceived environmental and policy determinants of physical activity and (2) associations between these factors and behavior. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1999 to 2000 among US adults; individuals at lower income levels were oversampled. RESULTS Availability of areas for(More)
Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical-or built-environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential.(More)
BACKGROUND Enhancing community environments to support walking and bicycling serves as a promising approach to increase population levels of physical activity. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors and their relative association with transportation or recreational physical activity. (More)
Despite the many accomplishments of public health, a greater attention to evidence-based approaches is warranted. This article reviews the concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH), on which formal discourse originated about a decade ago. Key components of EBPH include making decisions on the basis of the best available scientific evidence, using data(More)
CONTEXT Theories and frameworks (hereafter called models) enhance dissemination and implementation (D&I) research by making the spread of evidence-based interventions more likely. This work organizes and synthesizes these models by (1) developing an inventory of models used in D&I research; (2) synthesizing this information; and (3) providing guidance on(More)
We conducted a series of case-control studies to investigate the risks of 16 cancer types in relation to occupational physical activity. These studies were based on Missouri Cancer Registry data for 17,147 White male cancer patients registered between 1984 and 1989. Colon cancer risk was increased for both the moderate (odds ratio (OR) = 1.1; 95% confidence(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between built environment factors (representing several dimensions of urban form of neighbourhoods) and walking activity at both the neighbourhood level and the resident level, in an older adult sample. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS A cross sectional, multilevel design with neighbourhoods as the primary sampling unit and(More)
ethods: A lifetime cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective was conducted to estimate the costs, health gains, and cost-effectiveness (dollars per quality-adjusted life year [QALY] gained, relative to no intervention) of seven public health interventions to promote physical activity in a simulated cohort of healthy U.S. adults stratified by(More)