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Cyanogenesis is the process by which hydrogen cyanide is released from endogenous cyanide containing compounds. Many cyanogenic plants release HCN in sufficient quantities to be toxic and, as a result, tend to be avoided by herbivores. However, there are many exceptions with some herbivores either immune to the cyanogenic status of the plant, or in some(More)
Cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are bioactive plant products derived from amino acids. Structurally, these specialized plant compounds are characterized as α-hydroxynitriles (cyanohydrins) that are stabilized by glucosylation. In recent years, improved tools within analytical chemistry have greatly increased the number of known CNglcs by enabling the(More)
Global food security in a changing climate depends on both the nutritive value of staple crops as well as their yields. Here, we examined the direct effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide on the toxicity of the important pasture crop, Trifolium repens L. (clover). Shoots of T. repens contain cyanogenic glycosides that break down to release toxic hydrogen(More)
Global food security in a changing climate depends on both the nutritive value of staple crops as well as their yields. Here, we examined the direct effect of atmospheric CO(2) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Cranz., manioc), a staple for 750 million people worldwide. Cassava is poor in nutrients and contains high levels of cyanogenic glycosides that break(More)
The accumulation of terpenoid oil was examined in the leaves of Eucalyptus polybractea at scales ranging from individual oil glands to the whole plant. Variations in oil composition and concentration of oil were measured and related to both morphological and physiological parameters. Within a plant, all glands produced oil of broadly similar composition(More)
The use of high-throughput phenotyping systems and non-destructive imaging is widely regarded as a key technology allowing scientists and breeders to develop crops with the ability to perform well under diverse environmental conditions. However, many of these phenotyping studies have been optimized using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study,(More)
* Here, a new approach to macromolecular imaging of leaf tissue using a multichannel focal plane array (FPA) infrared detector was compared with the proven method of infrared mapping with a synchrotron source, using transverse sections of leaves from a species of Eucalyptus. * A new histological method was developed, ideally suited to infrared spectroscopic(More)
Cyanogenesis is a widespread and effective defense mechanism in plants. Published evidence suggests that cyanogenic capacity (i.e., cyanogenic glycoside concentration) is enhanced in response to water stress, although potentially confounding variables preclude a definite conclusion. We used highly cyanogenic Eucalyptus cladocalyx var. nana F. Muell.(More)
In this study approximately 420 of the described species of Eucalyptus were examined for cyanogenesis. Our work has identified an additional 18 cyanogenic species, 12 from living tissues and a further six from herbarium samples. This brings the total of known cyanogenic species to 23, representing approximately 4% of the genus. The taxonomic distribution of(More)
Cassava is the sixth most important crop, in terms of global annual production. Cassava is grown primarily for its starchy tuberous roots, which are an important staple for more than 800 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, but also in other parts of Africa, Asia, the Pacific and South America. Cassava is important for both small-scale farmers and(More)