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Vertical transmission (VT) and associated manipulation of host reproduction are widely reported among prokaryotic endosymbionts. Here, we present evidence for widespread use of VT and associated sex-ratio distortion in a eukaryotic phylum. The Microspora are an unusual and diverse group of eukaryotic parasites that infect all animal phyla. Following our(More)
The amphipod crustacean Gammarus duebeni hosts two species of vertically transmitted microsporidian parasites, Nosema granulosis and Microsporidium sp. A. Here it is demonstrated that these co-occurring parasite species both cause infected females to produce female-biased broods. A survey of European G. duebeni populations demonstrates that these two(More)
We examined the transmission efficiency of 2 strains of Wolbachia bacteria that cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in field populations of Aedes albopictus by polymerase chain reaction assay. We found mainland and island populations throughout Thailand to be superinfected with group A and B bacteria. Of 320 Wolbachia-positive adult mosquitoes, 97.5% were(More)
The Anopheles minimus complex is known to comprise at least 2 sibling species (A and C) in Thailand and Vietnam. This study investigated the specific status of An. minimus on Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan using morphological and genetic analyses. Morphological studies revealed that almost all (99.5%) of the adult mosquitoes are(More)
We screened a population of the brackish water crustacean Gammarus duebeni from the Isle of Cumbrae for the presence of vertically transmitted microsporidia. We compared 2 screening techniques; light microscopy and PCR-based detection using generic 16S rDNA microsporidian primers. Fifty percent of females from this population tested positive for vertically(More)
A novel microsporidian parasite is described, which infects the crustacean host Gammarus duebeni. The parasite was transovarially transmitted and feminised host offspring. The life cycle was monomorphic with three stages. Meronts were found in host embryos, juveniles, and in the gonadal tissue of adults. Sporoblasts and spores were restricted to the gonad.(More)
Fluorescence microscopic methods have been used to characterize the cell cycle of Bacillus subtilis at four different growth rates. The data obtained have been used to derive models for cell cycle progression. Like that of Escherichia coli, the period required by B. subtilis for chromosome replication at 37 degrees C was found to be fairly constant(More)
We measured the seasonal abundance and bloodfeeding behavior of species A and C of the mosquito Anopheles minimus Theobald 1901 in an endemic malarious area of western Thailand. An. minimus s.l. is a major vector of human malarial and filarial parasites in Southeast Asia. Mosquitos were collected once a month for one year using four collection methods:(More)
We report two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for distinguishing morphologically similar species based on amplification of a variable region of the 28S gene of ribosomal DNA. The four species we investigated are mosquitoes of the Anopheles minimus group: An. aconitus, An. varuna and An. minimus species A and C. The formally named species are(More)
We have surveyed the distribution of the transposable element mariner using PCR in 23 species of Anopheles mosquitoes, including all of the most important vectors of malaria in South-east Asia. Sequencing of the nine positive species revealed elements from the irritans, mauritiana and mellifera subfamilies. These are the first data showing the presence of(More)