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The mnd mouse spontaneously develops slowly evolving motoneuron pathology leading to progressive motor impairment. There is strong evidence that a complex interplay between oxidative stress, mitochondria abnormalities and alteration of glutamate neurotransmission plays an important role in the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases. Therefore, we(More)
Here we investigated the possible regulation of neurosteroidogenesis by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activation and addressed the hypothesis that neurosteroid synthesis may be involved in acute excitotoxicity. In the isolated retina, exposure to NMDA modified pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulphate formation. This effect was dose and time(More)
It has been previously shown that retinal ganglion cells have the ability to synthesize steroids including neuroactive steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate. Since ganglion cells possess GABAA/benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors and neurosteroids modulate retinal GABAA receptor function, we investigated the role of these receptors in isolated rat retina(More)
Neurosteroids (steroids synthesized in the CNS) function by modulating neurotransmission. To establish an experimental model for investigation of neurosteroid synthesis and regulation, independent of blood-borne steroids, we examined the steroidogenic activity of isolated rat retinas. We identified progesterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone,(More)
Na+-independent [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to membrane preparations from frontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus is competitively inhibited by the in vitro addition of a naturally occurring pyrimidinic compound, uridine. Moreover, the intraperitoneal injection of uridine produces a dose-related decrease in the cerebellar content of cyclic(More)
Pregnenolone, the precursor of all steroids, is synthesized by CNS structures. The synthesis requires an obligatory step involving cholesterol transport to mitochondrial cytochrome P450-cholesterol side chain cleavage (cytP450scc), although the underlying mechanism(s) are still mostly unknown. We used the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line to investigate(More)
Retinal degeneration is an early and progressive event in many forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with unknown pathogenesis. We here used the mutant motor neuron degeneration (mnd) mouse, a late-infantile NCL variant, to investigate the retinal oxidative state and apoptotic cell death as a(More)
The present study was designed to investigate the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PS), known for its ability to modulate NMDA receptors and interfere with acute excitotoxicity, in delayed retinal cell death. Three hours after exposure of the isolated and intact retina to a 30-min PS pulse, DNA fragmentation as assessed by genomic DNA gel electrophoresis(More)
This study investigates the implication of mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways in the death of retinal neurones exposed to the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PS) shown to evoke apoptosis and contribute to amplification and propagation of excitotoxicity. After a brief PS challenge of intact retinas, caspase-3 and caspase-2 activation and(More)