Rosetta Guarneri

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Neurosteroids (steroids synthesized in the CNS) function by modulating neurotransmission. To establish an experimental model for investigation of neurosteroid synthesis and regulation, independent of blood-borne steroids, we examined the steroidogenic activity of isolated rat retinas. We identified progesterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone,(More)
An asymmetric distribution of GABA binding sites was found in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellar hemispheres, striatum, and thalamus. Higher levels of [3H]GABA binding were observed in the left-side of most brain areas and in a greater percentage of adult rats, but the opposite asymmetry was found in the thalamus. A similar left-right difference(More)
Pregnenolone, the precursor of all steroids, is synthesized by CNS structures. The synthesis requires an obligatory step involving cholesterol transport to mitochondrial cytochrome P450-cholesterol side chain cleavage (cytP450scc), although the underlying mechanism(s) are still mostly unknown. We used the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line to investigate(More)
Na+-independent [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to membrane preparations from frontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus is competitively inhibited by the in vitro addition of a naturally occurring pyrimidinic compound, uridine. Moreover, the intraperitoneal injection of uridine produces a dose-related decrease in the cerebellar content of cyclic(More)
Asymmetric differences have been found in the pre- and postsynaptic activity of the GABAergic system of the left and right striata of the rat. 3H-GABA binding shows a higher dissociation constant (KD) and a higher number of sites (Bmax) in the left striatum than in the right. Moreover, 3H-diazepam binding seems to be more extensively activated by GABA in(More)
Retinal degeneration is an early and progressive event in many forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with unknown pathogenesis. We here used the mutant motor neuron degeneration (mnd) mouse, a late-infantile NCL variant, to investigate the retinal oxidative state and apoptotic cell death as a(More)
The effect of uridine, a postulated anticonvulsant agent, on GABA receptors has been investigated. Uridine inhibits [3H]GABA binding to rat cerebellar buffer-washed membranes. Pretreatment of the membranes with Triton X-100 increases the effect of uridine on GABA-binding. The Scatchard analysis reveals that both high and low affinities of GABA for its(More)
The mnd mouse spontaneously develops slowly evolving motoneuron pathology leading to progressive motor impairment. There is strong evidence that a complex interplay between oxidative stress, mitochondria abnormalities and alteration of glutamate neurotransmission plays an important role in the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases. Therefore, we(More)
Here we investigated the possible regulation of neurosteroidogenesis by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activation and addressed the hypothesis that neurosteroid synthesis may be involved in acute excitotoxicity. In the isolated retina, exposure to NMDA modified pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulphate formation. This effect was dose and time(More)
It has been previously shown that retinal ganglion cells have the ability to synthesize steroids including neuroactive steroids such as pregnenolone sulfate. Since ganglion cells possess GABAA/benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors and neurosteroids modulate retinal GABAA receptor function, we investigated the role of these receptors in isolated rat retina(More)