Rosetta Guarneri

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Pregnenolone, the precursor of all steroids, is synthesized by CNS structures. The synthesis requires an obligatory step involving cholesterol transport to mitochondrial cytochrome P450-cholesterol side chain cleavage (cytP450scc), although the underlying mechanism(s) are still mostly unknown. We used the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line to investigate(More)
An asymmetric distribution of GABA binding sites was found in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellar hemispheres, striatum, and thalamus. Higher levels of [3H]GABA binding were observed in the left-side of most brain areas and in a greater percentage of adult rats, but the opposite asymmetry was found in the thalamus. A similar left-right difference(More)
Neurosteroids (steroids synthesized in the CNS) function by modulating neurotransmission. To establish an experimental model for investigation of neurosteroid synthesis and regulation, independent of blood-borne steroids, we examined the steroidogenic activity of isolated rat retinas. We identified progesterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone,(More)
Na+-independent [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding to membrane preparations from frontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus is competitively inhibited by the in vitro addition of a naturally occurring pyrimidinic compound, uridine. Moreover, the intraperitoneal injection of uridine produces a dose-related decrease in the cerebellar content of cyclic(More)
Here we investigated the possible regulation of neurosteroidogenesis by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activation and addressed the hypothesis that neurosteroid synthesis may be involved in acute excitotoxicity. In the isolated retina, exposure to NMDA modified pregnenolone and pregnenolone sulphate formation. This effect was dose and time(More)
Pregnenolone sulfate (PS) acts as a positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated responses. In the retina, we previously observed that the synthesis of pregnenolone and PS increases after stimulation of NMDA receptors and blockade of the synthesis reduces retinal cell death. This study was carried out to explore in the(More)
This study investigates the implication of mitochondria- and caspase-dependent pathways in the death of retinal neurones exposed to the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PS) shown to evoke apoptosis and contribute to amplification and propagation of excitotoxicity. After a brief PS challenge of intact retinas, caspase-3 and caspase-2 activation and(More)
Steroids may have a powerful role in neuronal degeneration. Recent research has revealed that steroids may influence the onset and progression of some retinal disorders as well as neurodegenerative diseases and, as in brain, they accumulate in the retina via a local synthesis (neurosteroids) and metabolism of blood-circulating steroid hormones. Their(More)
Asymmetric differences have been found in the pre- and postsynaptic activity of the GABAergic system of the left and right striata of the rat. 3H-GABA binding shows a higher dissociation constant (KD) and a higher number of sites (Bmax) in the left striatum than in the right. Moreover, 3H-diazepam binding seems to be more extensively activated by GABA in(More)
Retinal degeneration is an early and progressive event in many forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with unknown pathogenesis. We here used the mutant motor neuron degeneration (mnd) mouse, a late-infantile NCL variant, to investigate the retinal oxidative state and apoptotic cell death as a(More)