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Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often proposed mechanism, namely that involving the HPA axis and(More)
INTRODUCTION Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller decreases in negative behavior and cortisol responses over(More)
In this systematic review on empirical studies of cortisol reactivity to acute stressors in infants, we specifically focus on the role of infant age in the early development of cortisol reactivity to stressors. Our findings indicate that many psychological stressors do not provoke a cortisol reaction, but in response to physical stressors, the infant(More)
This study investigated Cortisol responses and perceived stress of 10-15-year-olds to a computerized paradigm including elements of social evaluation, unpredictability, and uncontrollability. Both age and sex differences were examined. Participants were 52 children and adolescents (23 boys, mean age = 12.5 years). Over the course of an approximately 2-h(More)
BACKGROUND In this prospective longitudinal study, we investigated the relation between sleeping arrangements and infant cortisol reactivity to stressors in the first two post-natal months. Co-sleeping, as compared to solitary sleeping, is hypothesized to provide more parental external stress regulation by night, thus reducing general stress sensitivity. We(More)
In premature infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has various beneficial effects on the health of the infant and the mother. These beneficial effects might extend to full-term infants. This experimental within-subject study examines the immediate effects of SSC on full-terms' cortisol physiology during SSC and subsequent physiological and behavioral(More)
In this study we examined whether securely versus insecurely attached infants use different regulatory behaviors in absence of their mother and whether these regulatory behaviors are differentially associated with physiological stress responses in secure versus insecure infants. Participants were 193 one-year-olds and their mothers. During three 3-min(More)
Caregiving interest in men (N=46) during the third trimester of their partner's pregnancy was examined. The study included both explicit and implicit measures of caregiving interest, assessments of basal urinary concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin, and exogenous (intranasal) application of these hormones. Compared to control men (N=20), fathers-to-be(More)
This longitudinal study employed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised in assessing temperamental differences between infants at 6 months (n = 114 US, 184 Dutch) and 12 months (n = 92 US, 172 Dutch) from the United States of America and The Netherlands. Main effects indicated that Dutch infants were rated higher on the Orienting/Regulatory Capacity(More)
The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm.(More)