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The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of 20 min. The Children's Reactions to Evaluation Stress Test(More)
OBJECTIVES Evidence from both animals and humans suggests that maternal prenatal anxiety and stress can have adverse consequences on the offspring's development. Animal models also show that prenatal stress has programming effects on the physical health of the offspring, such as immune functioning. In human studies, however, physical health outcomes are(More)
OBJECTIVE : Night wakings are common in infancy. Although a link between infant night wakings and attachment to the primary caregiver has been previously proposed, empirical support is limited so far. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the early history of night waking in infants who were later classified as securely or insecurely(More)
Early life factors can shape the development of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Maternal prenatal stress might constitute such an early environmental factor. As little is known about the relation between maternal prenatal stress and cortisol reactivity in human offspring, we performed a longitudinal study including four assessments of infant(More)
Recognizing the important role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) particularly in preterm infant nutrition, we studied the fatty acid composition of breast milk from 65 mothers of very preterm ( < 31 weeks of gestation) and preterm ( > or = 31 and < 36 weeks of gestation) infants. Fatty acids were determined as fatty acid methyl esters by(More)
Experiences during early life are suggested to affect the physiological systems underlying stress responses, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). While stressful early experiences have been associated with dysregulated HPA-axis functioning, positive early experiences, i.e. high maternal caregiving quality, contribute to more optimal(More)
INTRODUCTION Our aim was to examine infants' behavioral and physiological stress responses to three weekly maternal separations, in relation to maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and cortisol. The hypothesis was that more prenatal stress and higher cortisol concentrations would predict smaller decreases in negative behavior and cortisol responses over(More)
Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often proposed mechanism, namely that involving the HPA axis and(More)
INTRODUCTION Many studies have incorporated cortisol measurements when studying infant development, but descriptions of normal development of basal cortisol levels in large study populations are scarce. The present study aimed to establish norm values for infant basal cortisol levels and to examine the development of intra-individual variability in the(More)
In this systematic review on empirical studies of cortisol reactivity to acute stressors in infants, we specifically focus on the role of infant age in the early development of cortisol reactivity to stressors. Our findings indicate that many psychological stressors do not provoke a cortisol reaction, but in response to physical stressors, the infant(More)