Rosena S. Williams

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Mre11 forms the core of the multifunctional Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex that detects DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), activates the ATM checkpoint kinase, and initiates homologous recombination (HR) repair of DSBs. To define the roles of Mre11 in both DNA bridging and nucleolytic processing during initiation of DSB repair, we combined small-angle X-ray(More)
The Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (Nbs1) subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex protects genome integrity by coordinating double-strand break (DSB) repair and checkpoint signaling through undefined interactions with ATM, MDC1, and Sae2/Ctp1/CtIP. Here, fission yeast and human Nbs1 structures defined by X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray(More)
The Rad50 ABC-ATPase complex with Mre11 nuclease is essential for dsDNA break repair, telomere maintenance and ataxia telangiectasia-mutated kinase checkpoint signaling. How Rad50 affects Mre11 functions and how ABC-ATPases communicate nucleotide binding and ligand states across long distances and among protein partners are questions that have remained(More)
Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically(More)
DNA ligases finalize DNA replication and repair through DNA nick-sealing reactions that can abort to generate cytotoxic 5'-adenylation DNA damage. Aprataxin (Aptx) catalyzes direct reversal of 5'-adenylate adducts to protect genome integrity. Here the structure of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe Aptx-DNA-AMP-Zn(2+) complex reveals active site and DNA(More)
A regulatory element upstream of the human myoglobin gene functions as a muscle-specific enhancer (MSE) in conjunction with core promoter elements of the myoglobin gene, but not in combination with the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter. These two promoters differ in the sequences of their 'TATA boxes': for the myoglobin gene, the sequence is TATAAAA,(More)
The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF-50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate(More)
Ctp1 (also known as CtIP or Sae2) collaborates with Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 to initiate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but its functions remain enigmatic. We report that tetrameric Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ctp1 contains multivalent DNA-binding and DNA-bridging activities. Through structural and biophysical analyses of the Ctp1 tetramer, we define the(More)
The Topoisomerase II (topo II) DNA incision and ligation cycle can be poisoned (e.g following treatment with cancer chemotherapeutics) to generate cytotoxic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) with topo II covalently conjugated to DNA. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (Tdp2) protects genomic integrity by reversing 5′-phosphotyrosyl (5′-Y) linked topo II-DNA(More)