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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Sexual behavior following voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) is described in 963 cohabiting heterosexual couples with one HIV positive and one HIV negative partner ('discordant couples'). Biological markers were used to assess the validity of self-report. METHODS Couples were recruited from a same-day VCT center in(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine trends in HIV prevalence and behaviours in Zambia during the 1990s. METHODS The core Zambian system for epidemiological surveillance and research has two major components: (i) HIV sentinel surveillance at selected antenatal clinics (ANC) in all provinces; and (ii) population-based HIV surveys in selected sentinel populations (1996 and(More)
Heterosexual transmission accounts for the majority of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections worldwide, yet the viral properties that determine transmission fitness or outgrowth have not been elucidated. Here we show, for eight heterosexual transmission pairs, that recipient viruses were monophyletic, encoding compact, glycan-restricted envelope(More)
More than 80% of the world's HIV-infected adults live in sub-Saharan Africa, where heterosexual transmission is the predominant mode of spread. The virologic and immunologic correlates of female-to-male (FTM) and male-to-female (MTF) transmission are not well understood. A total of 1022 heterosexual couples with discordant HIV-1 serology results (one(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to explore whether the differences in rate of spread of HIV in different regions in sub-Saharan Africa could be explained by differences in sexual behaviour and/or factors influencing the probability of HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. METHODS A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in(More)
BACKGROUND Rates of condom use in sub-Saharan Africa have remained too low to curb HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemics. A better understanding of the main determinants of condom use would aid promotion. METHODS Cross-sectional population surveys were conducted in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa: Yaoundé, Cameroon; Cotonou, Benin; Ndola,(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify factors that could explain differences in rate of spread of HIV between different regions in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS The study took place in two cities with a relatively low HIV prevalence (Cotonou, Benin and Yaoundé, Cameroon), and two cities with a high HIV prevalence (Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola,(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate age- and sex-specific herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) prevalence in urban African adult populations and to identify factors associated with infection. DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional, population-based samples of about 2000 adults interviewed in each of the following cities: Cotonou, Benin; Yaoundé, Cameroon; Kisumu, Kenya and(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the epidemiology of gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and syphilis in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa; two with a high prevalence of HIV infection (Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia), and two with a relatively low HIV prevalence (Cotonou, Benin and Yaoundé, Cameroon). DESIGN Cross-sectional study, using standardized methods, including(More)
An understanding of the relationship between the breadth and magnitude of T-cell epitope responses and viral loads is important for the design of effective vaccines. For this study, we screened a cohort of 46 subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals for T-cell responses against a panel of peptides corresponding to the(More)