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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell growth transformation, a central feature of the virus' strategy for colonizing the human B-cell system, requires full virus latent gene expression and is initiated by transcription from the viral promoter Wp. Interestingly, when EBV accesses other cell types, this growth-transforming program is not activated. The(More)
Two Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle promoters for nuclear antigen expression, Wp and Cp, are activated sequentially during virus-induced transformation of B cells to B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in vitro. Previously published restriction enzyme studies have indicated hypomethylation of CpG dinucleotides in the Wp and Cp regions of the viral genome in(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can display different forms of latent infection in B-cell lines in vitro; however, the types of infection normally established by the virus in vivo remain largely unexplored. Here we have approached this question by analyzing the types of viral RNAs present in mononuclear cells freshly isolated from the blood of 14 infectious(More)
Polymorphisms in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent genes can identify virus strains from different human populations and individual strains within a population. An Asian EBV signature has been defined almost exclusively from Chinese viruses, with little information from other Asian countries. Here we sequenced polymorphic regions of the EBNA1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C(More)
In healthy virus carriers, EBV is subject to strong CTL responses that principally target the EBV nuclear Ag (EBNA) 3A, 3B, 3C subset of virus proteins. In vitro-reactivated CTLs of this kind have proved very effective in treating EBV-positive immunoblastic lymphoma, a malignancy that expresses the full range of virus proteins. However, targeting other(More)
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) tend to focus on a few immunodominant viral epitopes; where these epitope sequences are polymorphic between EBV strains, host CTL specificities should reflect the identity of the resident strain. In studying responses in HLA-B27-positive virus carriers, we identified 2 of 15 individuals who(More)
In apparent contrast to earlier work on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) carriage in the general Caucasian population, in vitro virus isolations from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive male homosexual cohorts have shown frequent examples of multiple EBV infection and an overall prevalence of type 2 EBV strains exceeding 30%. Here we ask to what extent(More)
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) carrier state is characterized by latent infection of the general B-cell pool and by chronic virus replication at oropharyngeal sites. In Caucasian populations, most healthy carriers seem to harbor one dominant transforming virus strain, usually of type I rather than type 2, which persists over time and is detectable both in the(More)
Most Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Burkitt's lymphomas (BLs) carry a wild-type EBV genome and express EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) selectively from the BamHI Q promoter (latency I). Recently we identified a distinct subset of BLs carrying both wild-type and EBNA2 gene-deleted (transformation-defective) viral genomes. The cells displayed an atypical(More)
Recent work using a heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA) to identify resident viral sequences has suggested that patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) who are undergoing primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection frequently harbor different EBV strains. Here, we examine samples from patients with IM by use of a new Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2 HTA(More)