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Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces a marked increase in the interferon (IFN)-gamma response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (Mtb PPD) in UK adolescents, but not in Malawian adolescents. We hypothesized that Mtb PPD-induced IFN-gamma after BCG vaccination would be similar in infants from these 2 countries. Infants(More)
We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African(More)
To investigate the role of innate immunity in variable efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in Malawi and the United Kingdom, we examined 24-h tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-10 responses to mycobacterial purified protein derivatives (PPDs). The rank order in stimulatory potency for different PPDs was the same(More)
BACKGROUND BCG vaccination of infants is thought to provide good protection in all settings. This study investigated whether Malawian infants made weaker responses across a cytokine panel after BCG vaccination, compared with UK infants. METHODS Diluted whole-blood samples were cultured with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of BCG vaccines against pulmonary tuberculosis varies between populations, showing no protection in Malawi but 50-80% protection in the UK. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, randomised controlled studies were set up to measure vaccine-induced immune responsiveness to mycobacterial antigens in both(More)
BACKGROUND BCG vaccination is administered in infancy in most countries with the aim of providing protection against tuberculosis. There is increasing interest in the role of vitamin D in immunity to tuberculosis. This study objective was to determine if there was an association between circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and BCG vaccination status and(More)
Development of an immunological tool to detect infection with Mycobacterium leprae would greatly benefit leprosy control programmes, as demonstrated by the contribution of the tuberculin test to tuberculosis control. In a new approach to develop a 'tuberculin-like' reagent for use in leprosy, two new fractions of M. leprae depleted of cross-reactive and(More)
BACKGROUND Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by neonatal BCG vaccination, evidence concerning the persistence of the BCG vaccine-induced response would help inform decisions about when such(More)
Interferon (IFN)-gamma responsiveness to 12 purified protein derivative (PPD) and new tuberculin antigens from 9 species of mycobacteria was assessed, using a whole blood assay, in 616 young adults living in northern Malawi, where Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination provides no protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. The(More)
IFNgamma plays an important part in immunity to tuberculosis (TB), but although it is necessary, it is not on its own sufficient for protection against TB. To identify other cytokines that play a role in the protection against TB induced by BCG vaccination, immune responses were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated infants from the UK where BCG is(More)