Rosemary E. Weir

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Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces a marked increase in the interferon (IFN)-gamma response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (Mtb PPD) in UK adolescents, but not in Malawian adolescents. We hypothesized that Mtb PPD-induced IFN-gamma after BCG vaccination would be similar in infants from these 2 countries. Infants(More)
The immune responses of schoolchildren in southeast England to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other species of mycobacteria were studied prior to vaccination with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Data are presented for tuberculin (Heaf) skin test and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses to M. tuberculosis purified protein derivative (PPD), and IFN-gamma(More)
We report a large study of the effect of BCG vaccination on the in vitro 6-day whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) response to antigens from eight species of mycobacteria among schoolchildren in south-eastern England, where bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is highly protective against pulmonary tuberculosis, and among young adults in northern(More)
BACKGROUND Differences in degree of environmental exposure to antigens in early life have been hypothesized to lead to differences in immune status in individuals from different populations, which may have implications for immune responses in later years. METHODS Venous blood from HIV-negative adolescents and blood from the umbilical cords of babies, born(More)
Interferon (IFN)-gamma responsiveness to 12 purified protein derivative (PPD) and new tuberculin antigens from 9 species of mycobacteria was assessed, using a whole blood assay, in 616 young adults living in northern Malawi, where Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination provides no protection against pulmonary tuberculosis. The(More)
IFNgamma plays an important part in immunity to tuberculosis (TB), but although it is necessary, it is not on its own sufficient for protection against TB. To identify other cytokines that play a role in the protection against TB induced by BCG vaccination, immune responses were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated infants from the UK where BCG is(More)
We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African(More)
SETTING Rural northern Malawi, where vaccination with BCG Glaxo (1077) provides protection against leprosy but not against pulmonary tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the patterns of responsiveness to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (PPD) in terms of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Under-potent generic antibiotics sold in developing world countries may be contributing to positive selection of resistance organisms and to unpredictability in clinical outcome, leading to a loss of confidence among physicians locally. The objective of this study was to determine whether reports of unpredictable outcome for generic(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of BCG vaccines against pulmonary tuberculosis varies between populations, showing no protection in Malawi but 50-80% protection in the UK. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, randomised controlled studies were set up to measure vaccine-induced immune responsiveness to mycobacterial antigens in both(More)