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Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination induces a marked increase in the interferon (IFN)-gamma response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative (Mtb PPD) in UK adolescents, but not in Malawian adolescents. We hypothesized that Mtb PPD-induced IFN-gamma after BCG vaccination would be similar in infants from these 2 countries. Infants(More)
BACKGROUND BCG vaccination of infants is thought to provide good protection in all settings. This study investigated whether Malawian infants made weaker responses across a cytokine panel after BCG vaccination, compared with UK infants. METHODS Diluted whole-blood samples were cultured with Mycobacterium tuberculosis purified protein derivative for 6 days(More)
We have previously shown that young adults living in a rural area of northern Malawi showed greater gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to purified protein derivatives (PPD) prepared from environmental mycobacteria than to PPD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In order to define the mycobacterial species to which individuals living in a rural African(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of BCG vaccines against pulmonary tuberculosis varies between populations, showing no protection in Malawi but 50-80% protection in the UK. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, randomised controlled studies were set up to measure vaccine-induced immune responsiveness to mycobacterial antigens in both(More)
BACKGROUND Although BCG vaccination is recommended in most countries of the world, little is known of the persistence of BCG-induced immune responses. As novel TB vaccines may be given to boost the immunity induced by neonatal BCG vaccination, evidence concerning the persistence of the BCG vaccine-induced response would help inform decisions about when such(More)
IFNgamma plays an important part in immunity to tuberculosis (TB), but although it is necessary, it is not on its own sufficient for protection against TB. To identify other cytokines that play a role in the protection against TB induced by BCG vaccination, immune responses were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated infants from the UK where BCG is(More)
BACKGROUND Differences in degree of environmental exposure to antigens in early life have been hypothesized to lead to differences in immune status in individuals from different populations, which may have implications for immune responses in later years. METHODS Venous blood from HIV-negative adolescents and blood from the umbilical cords of babies, born(More)
We have previously shown a reduction in anaemia and wasting malnutrition in infants <3 years old in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, following repeated anthelminthic treatment for the endemic gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. In view of the low intensity of worm infections in this age group, this was unexpected,(More)
BACKGROUND BCG vaccination is administered in infancy in most countries with the aim of providing protection against tuberculosis. There is increasing interest in the role of vitamin D in immunity to tuberculosis. This study objective was to determine if there was an association between circulating 25(OH)D concentrations and BCG vaccination status and(More)
BCG vaccination induces a marked increase in the IFNγ response to M.tb PPD in UK, but not Malawian adolescents. We hypothesized that PPD-induced IFNγ following BCG vaccination would be similar in infants in the two countries. Infants were BCG-vaccinated in the first 3-13 weeks of life. Three months post-BCG, 100% (51/51) of UK infants made an IFNγ response(More)
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