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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We examined the associations among the vascular beta-amyloid levels, smooth muscle actin, wall thickness, and lumen diameter to achieve greater understanding of the arteriolar changes that accompany Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Post-mortem pathology brain specimens from 76 patients with AD and 19 non-AD age control subjects were(More)
JC virus (JCV), a member of the polyomavirus family, causes a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Although glial cells are the principal target of JCV productive infection in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients, little is known regarding the site of JCV(More)
As the secretory source of vitamins, peptides and hormones for neurons, the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium critically provides substances for brain homeostasis. This distributive process of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume transmission reaches many cellular targets in the CNS. In ageing and ageing-related dementias, the CP-CSF system is less able to(More)
Thinning and discontinuities within the vascular basement membrane (VBM) are associated with leakage of the plasma protein prothrombin across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prothrombin immunohistochemistry and ELISA assays were performed on prefrontal cortex. In severe AD, prothrombin was localized within the wall and neuropil(More)
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is thought to be a primary transporter of beta-amyloid across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the brain from the systemic circulation, while the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-1 mediates transport of beta-amyloid out of the brain. To determine whether there are Alzheimer's(More)
PURPOSE Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP) plays a pivotal role in cancer by regulating apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents, or immune-mediated stimuli and is a metastasis suppressor protein. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that is frequently activated in gastric adenocarcinomas, thereby(More)
APOE4 homozygosity has been associated with an increased risk of sporadic Alzheimer's disease through a mechanism, which has yet to be defined. Recent evidence has suggested that microvascular basement membrane injury may be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of AD-related dementia. In previous studies, we have shown that the synaptic organizing protein(More)
Microvascular accumulation and neuronal overproduction of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) are pathologic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we examined the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), a multi-ligand receptor found in both neurons and cerebral microvascular endothelia that binds Abeta. RAGE expression was assessed in(More)
Undifferentiated or medullary carcinoma is characterized by its distinct histologic appearance and relatively better prognosis compared to poorly differentiated colonic carcinoma. These 2 entities may be difficult to differentiate by light microscopy alone. Only limited immunohistochemical studies investigating medullary carcinoma have been reported. These(More)
Differentiating eosinophilic esophagitis from gastroesophageal reflux disease is important given their pathogenetic differences and responses to therapy. Eotaxins are a family of chemokines important for activation and recruitment of eosinophils mediated by their receptor, chemokine receptor-3 (CCR-3). Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is a key cytokine involved in many(More)