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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the most lethal of all solid tumors with an overall five-year survival rate of only 3-5%. Its aggressive biology and resistance to conventional and targeted therapeutic agents lead to a typical clinical presentation of incurable disease once diagnosed. The disease is characterized by the presence of a dense(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate in vitro into all cell lineages. We previously found that the p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38MAPK) pathway controls the commitment of ES cells toward either cardiomyogenesis (p38 on) or neurogenesis (p38 off ). In this study, we show that p38α knock-out ES cells do not differentiate into cardiac, endothelial, smooth(More)
The comparative tumorigenicity in rats and nude mice of cell lines derived from FR3T3 and transformed by either c-jun, ras, SV40 lt, or bovine papilloma virus type 1 (BPV1) oncogenes was investigated. c-Jun-transformed cells were as tumorigenic and metastatic as Ras-transformed cells. Latencies were short, and numerous pulmonary metastases were observed in(More)
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