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The communities of Namawala and Idete villages in southern Tanzania experienced extremely high malaria transmission in the 1990s. By 2001-03, following high usage rates (75% of all age groups) of untreated bed nets, a 4.2-fold reduction in malaria transmission intensity was achieved. Since 2006, a national-scale programme has promoted the use of(More)
BACKGROUND Cost-sharing schemes incorporating modest targeted subsidies have promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania, since 1996. Here we evaluate resulting changes in bednet coverage and malaria transmission. METHODS Bednets were sold through local agents at fixed prices representing a(More)
BACKGROUND Insecticide-treated nets have proven efficacy as a malaria-control tool in Africa. However, the transition from efficacy to effectiveness cannot be taken for granted. We assessed coverage and the effect on child survival of a large-scale social marketing programme for insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of southern Tanzania with high(More)
Access to health care is a major health and development issue. Most governments declare that their citizens should enjoy universal and equitable access to good quality care. However, even within the developed world, this goal is difficult to achieve, and there are no internationally recognized standards on how to define and measure “equitable access” [1].(More)
BACKGROUND The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy is designed to address major causes of child mortality at the levels of community, health facility, and health system. We assessed the effectiveness of facility-based IMCI in rural Tanzania. METHODS We compared two districts with facility-based IMCI and two neighbouring comparison(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of a social marketing programme for distributing nets treated with insecticide on malarial parasitaemia and anaemia in very young children in an area of high malaria transmission. DESIGN Community cross sectional study. Annual, cross sectional data were collected at the beginning of the social marketing campaign (1997) and(More)
Malaria control continues to rely on the diagnosis and prompt treatment of both suspected and confirmed cases through the health care structures. In south-eastern Tanzania malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The absence of microscopic examination in most of the health facilities implies that health workers must rely on clinical(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the impact of the Tanzania National Voucher Scheme on the coverage and equitable distribution of insecticide treated nets, used to prevent malaria, to pregnant women and their infants. DESIGN Plausibility study using three nationally representative cross sectional household and health facility surveys, timed to take place early,(More)
We present a large-scale social marketing programme of insecticide-treated nets in 2 rural districts in southwestern Tanzania (population 350,000) and describe how the long-term child health and survival impact will be assessed. Formative and market research were conducted in order to understand community perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practice with(More)
Since 2004, the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme has increased availability and accessibility of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to pregnant women and infants by subsidizing the cost of nets purchased. From 2008 to 2010, a mass distribution campaign delivered nine million long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) free-of-charge to children under-five years of(More)