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As clinical trials of pharmacological neuroprotective strategies in stroke have been disappointing, attention has turned to the brain's own endogenous strategies for neuroprotection. Recently, a hypothesis has been offered that modified reperfusion subsequent to a prolonged ischemic episode may also confer ischemic neuroprotection, a phenomenon termed(More)
Several recent studies suggest that sumo-2/3 modification of proteins occurs following harmful ischemia, however, sumo-2/3-ylation may also be associated with hibernation-mediated neuroprotection. Here we investigate the sumoylation of proteins following ischemia and ischemic tolerance using our established in vitro model of ischemia (oxygen and glucose(More)
The superfamily of cation/Ca2+ plasma-membrane exchangers contains two branches, the K+-independent Na+-Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) and the K+-dependent Na+-Ca2+ exchangers (NCKXs), widely expressed in mammals. NCKX2 is the major neuronally expressed isoform among NCKX members. Despite its importance in maintaining Na+, Ca2+, and K+ homeostasis in the CNS, the(More)
Na+/Ca+ exchanger 3 (NCX3), one of the three isoforms of the NCX family, is highly expressed in the brain and is involved in the maintenance of intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ homeostasis. Interestingly, whereas the function of NCX3 under physiological conditions has been determined, its role under anoxia is still unknown. To assess NCX3 role in cerebral(More)
Dysregulation of sodium [Na+]i and calcium [Ca2+]i homeostasis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Three gene products of the sodium-calcium exchanger family NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 couple, in a bidirectional way, the movement of these ions across the cell membrane during cerebral ischemia. Each isoform displays a selective(More)
Sodium/calcium exchangers are neuronal plasma membrane transporters, which by coupling Ca2+ and Na+ fluxes, may play a relevant role in brain ischemia. The exchanger gene superfamily comprises two arms: the K+-independent (NCX) and K+-dependent (NCKX) exchangers. In the brain, three different NCX (NCX1, NCX2, NCX3) and three NCKX (NCKX2, NCKX3, NCKX4)(More)
We investigated the effect of the VEGF-mimetic peptide, QK, on ischemic brain damage and on blood-brain barrier permeability in the rat. QK administered by the intracerebroventricular, intravenous, or intranasal route caused a 40% decrease in ischemic brain damage induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery relative to that in controls. No(More)
Background and Purpose—The Na ϩ /Ca 2ϩ exchanger, by mediating Ca 2ϩ and Na ϩ fluxes in a bidirectional way across the synaptic plasma membrane, may play a pivotal role in the events leading to anoxic damage. In the brain, there are 3 different genes coding for 3 different proteins: NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3. The aim of this study was to determine whether NCX1,(More)
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