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Computers are beginning to acquire the ability to express and recognize affect, and may soon be given the ability to " have emotions. " The essential role of emotion in both human cognition and perception, as demonstrated by recent neurological studies, indicates that affective computers should not only provide better performance in assisting humans, but(More)
The ability to recognize emotion is one of the hallmarks of emotional intelligence, an aspect of human intelligence that has been argued to be even more important than mathematical and verbal intelligences. This paper proposes that machine intelligence needs to include emotional intelligence and demonstrates results toward this goal: developing a machine's(More)
This paper presents methods for collecting and analyzing physiological data during real-world driving tasks to determine a driver's relative stress level. Electrocardiogram, electromyogram, skin conductance, and respiration were recorded continuously while drivers followed a set route through open roads in the greater Boston area. Data from 24 drives of at(More)
Remote measurements of the cardiac pulse can provide comfortable physiological assessment without electrodes. However, attempts so far are non-automated, susceptible to motion artifacts and typically expensive. In this paper, we introduce a new methodology that overcomes these problems. This novel approach can be applied to color video recordings of the(More)
This research investigates the meaning of “human-computer relationship” and presents techniques for constructing, maintaining, and evaluating such relationships, based on research in social psychology, sociolinguistics, communication and other social sciences. Contexts in which relationships are particularly important are described, together(More)
We present a simple, low-cost method for measuring multiple physiological parameters using a basic webcam. By applying independent component analysis on the color channels in video recordings, we extracted the blood volume pulse from the facial regions. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, and HR variability (HRV, an index for cardiac autonomic activity) were(More)
We show how high-level scene properties can be inferred from classiication of low-level image features, speciically for the indoor-outdoor scene retrieval problem. We systematically studied the features: (1) his-tograms in the Ohta color space (2) multiresolution, simultaneous autoregressive model parameters (3) coef-cients of a shift-invariant DCT. We(More)
Use of technology often has unpleasant side effects, which may include strong, negative emotional states that arise during interaction with computers. Frustration, confusion, anger, anxiety and similar emotional states can affect not only the interaction itself, but also productivity, learning, social relationships, and overall well-being. This paper(More)
This paper presents a system for recognizing naturally occurring postures and associated affective states related to a child's interest level while performing a learning task on a computer. Postures are gathered using two matrices of pressure sensors mounted on the seat and back of a chair. Subsequently, posture features are extracted using a mixture of(More)