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BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological condition that presents symptoms of chronic pelvic pain and the ectopic growth of endometrial lesions at sites on the peritoneum. Few new approaches to the management of the disease symptoms and progression have emerged in decades. The cornerstone of developing new therapies is the confidence and(More)
There is a clear case for drug treatments to be selected according to the characteristics of an individual patient, in order to improve efficacy and reduce the number and severity of adverse drug reactions. However, such personalization of drug treatments requires the ability to predict how different individuals will respond to a particular drug/dose(More)
A valid surrogate endpoint allows correct inference to be drawn regarding the effect of an intervention on the unobserved true clinical endpoint of interest. The perceived practical and ethical advantages of substituting a surrogate endpoint for a clinical endpoint have led to a considerable number of statistical methods being proposed for the evaluation of(More)
Compound subsets, which may be screened where it is not feasible or desirable to screen all available compounds, may be designed using rational or random selection. Literature on the relative performance of random versus rational selection reports conflicting observations, possibly because some random subsets might be more representative than others and(More)
Metabonomics is a relatively new field of research in which the total pool of metabolites in body fluids or tissues from different patient groups is subjected to comparative analysis. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the technology that is currently most widely used for the analysis of these highly complex metabolite mixtures, and hundreds(More)
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of ESRD worldwide. Reduced bioavailability or uncoupling of nitric oxide in the kidney, leading to decreased intracellular levels of the nitric oxide pathway effector molecule cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), has been implicated in the progression of DN. Preclinical studies suggest that elevating the cGMP(More)
Whilst innovative Bayesian approaches are increasingly used in clinical studies, in the preclinical area Bayesian methods appear to be rarely used in the reporting of pharmacology data. This is particularly surprising in the context of regularly repeated in vivo studies where there is a considerable amount of data from historical control groups, which has(More)
Bayesian methods are increasingly used in proof-of-concept studies. An important benefit of these methods is the potential to use informative priors, thereby reducing sample size. This is particularly relevant for treatment arms where there is a substantial amount of historical information such as placebo and active comparators. One issue with using an(More)
There is considerable ongoing investment in the research and development of selective progesterone receptor (PR) modulators for the treatment of gynecological conditions such as endometriosis. Here, we provide the first report on the clinical evaluation of a nonsteroidal progesterone receptor antagonist(More)
This paper illustrates how the design and statistical analysis of the primary endpoint of a proof-of-concept study can be formulated within a Bayesian framework and is motivated by and illustrated with a Pfizer case study in chronic kidney disease. It is shown how decision criteria for success can be formulated, and how the study design can be assessed in(More)