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Almost nothing is known about the mechanisms of dissimilatory metal reduction by Gram-positive bacteria, although they may be the dominant species in some environments. Thermincola potens strain JR was isolated from the anode of a microbial fuel cell inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge and operated at 55 °C. Preliminary characterization revealed that(More)
Globins are heme-containing proteins that are best known for their roles in oxygen (O(2)) transport and storage. However, more diverse roles of globins in biology are being revealed, including gas and redox sensing. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, 33 globin or globin-like genes were recently identified, some of which are known to be expressed in the(More)
Redox-inactive metals are found in biological and heterogeneous water oxidation catalysts, but, at present, their roles in catalysis are not well understood. Here, we report a series of high-oxidation-state tetranuclear-dioxido clusters comprising three manganese centres and a redox-inactive metal (M). Crystallographic studies show an unprecedented(More)
Most of the dioxygen on earth is generated by the oxidation of water by photosystem II (PS II) using light from the sun. This light-driven, four-photon reaction is catalyzed by the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster located at the lumenal side of PS II. Various X-ray studies have been carried out at cryogenic temperatures to understand the intermediate steps involved in(More)
The dioxygen we breathe is formed by light-induced oxidation of water in photosystem II. O2 formation takes place at a catalytic manganese cluster within milliseconds after the photosystem II reaction centre is excited by three single-turnover flashes. Here we present combined X-ray emission spectra and diffraction data of 2-flash (2F) and 3-flash (3F)(More)
Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses produced at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) were used for simultaneous x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of microcrystals of photosystem II (PS II) at room temperature. This method probes the overall protein structure and the electronic structure of the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the(More)
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a nitric oxide- (NO-) sensing hemoprotein that has been found in eukaryotes from Drosophila to humans. Prokaryotic proteins with significant homology to the heme domain of sGC have recently been identified through genomic analysis. Characterization of two of these proteins is reported here. The first is a 181 amino acid(More)
The heme cofactor in soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a selective receptor for NO, an important signaling molecule in eukaryotes. The sGC heme domain has been localized to the N-terminal 194 amino acids of the beta1 subunit of sGC and is a member of a family of conserved hemoproteins, called the H-NOX family (Heme-Nitric Oxide and/or OXygen-binding(More)
Tracing the transient atomic motions that lie at the heart of chemical reactions requires high-resolution multidimensional structural information on the timescale of molecular vibrations, which commonly range from 10 fs to 1 ps. For simple chemical systems, it has been possible to map out in considerable detail the reactive potential-energy surfaces(More)
X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources enable the use of crystallography to solve three-dimensional macromolecular structures under native conditions and without radiation damage. Results to date, however, have been limited by the challenge of deriving accurate Bragg intensities from a heterogeneous population of microcrystals, while at the same time(More)