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Thyroid hormones have widespread cellular effects; however it is unclear whether their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) contribute to global energy balance. Here we demonstrate that either whole-body hyperthyroidism or central administration of triiodothyronine (T3) decreases the activity of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK),(More)
Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is fundamental to energy balance and is also relevant for humans. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate adipogenesis, and, here, we describe a role for BMP8B in the direct regulation of thermogenesis. BMP8B is induced by nutritional and thermogenic factors in mature BAT, increasing the response to(More)
GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is widely located throughout the brain, but the precise molecular mechanisms mediating the actions of GLP-1 and its long-acting analogs on adipose tissue as well as the brain areas responsible for these interactions remain largely unknown. We found that central injection of a clinically used GLP-1R agonist, liraglutide, in mice(More)
1. Seven to ten days after sectioning their axons, rat sympathetic neurons were studied using intracellular recording techniques in an in vitro preparation of the superior cervical ganglion. 2. In 75% of axotomized cells, an after-depolarization (ADP) was observed following spike firing or depolarization with intracellular current pulses. Discontinuous(More)
Current evidence suggests that hypothalamic fatty acid metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake; however, confirmation that it is a physiologically relevant regulatory system of feeding is still incomplete. Here, we use pharmacological and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the physiological orexigenic response to ghrelin involves specific(More)
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is a 28 amino acid peptide originally isolated from rat stomach that has been primarily involved in the central neuroregulation of GH secretion and food intake. Previous studies demonstrated that ghrelin has a widespread expression in different normal cells and tissues, as(More)
Fatty acid metabolism in the hypothalamus has recently been shown to regulate feeding. The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TMX) exerts a potent anorectic effect. Here, we show that the anorectic effect of TMX is associated with the accumulation of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus and inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression(More)
The properties of chemoreceptor and baroreceptor neurones in the petrosal ganglion of the cat were examined in vitro with intracellular micro-electrodes. Chemoreceptor neurones with myelinated axons (average conduction velocity, 11 m/s) showed action potentials with a hump on the falling phase, followed by a prolonged after-hyperpolarization (average(More)
Adiponectin is thought to play a decisive role in the relationships among obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. This study investigated whether cardiomyocytes synthesize and secrete adiponectin, and the effects of this hormone on cardiac cells. RT-PCR showed that mouse, rat and human cardiomyocytes produced mRNA for adiponectin and(More)