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A standardized real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay has been developed for an accurate estimation of the number of genome copies of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in clinical and shellfish samples. Real-time procedures were based on the amplification of a fragment of the highly conserved 5' noncoding region and detection through an internal(More)
In the present work, we aimed at determining the relationship between the hepatitis A virus (HAV) numbers in imported frozen coquina clams involved in two hepatitis outbreaks, as well as the risk for human health. Due to HAV unculturability, a standardized TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR controlling the virus/nucleic acid extraction and enzyme(More)
A 3-year study involving 2,347 gastroenteritis samples was conducted to determine the prevalence, time distribution, and medical significance of human astrovirus infection in Barcelona, Spain. The overall incidence of astrovirus was found to be 4.9%. Mixed infections with other enteric agents were detected in 17.2% of all astrovirus-positive samples. During(More)
The presence of rotavirus strains in sewage samples from Cairo, Egypt (November 1998 to October 1999), and Barcelona, Spain (November 1998 to December 2002), was investigated by using a generic molecular detection method based on amplification of a VP6 gene fragment. Overall, 85.7 and 66.9% of the sewage samples from Cairo and Barcelona, respectively, were(More)
Human sapoviruses (SaVs) were quantified and characterized in an 18-month survey conducted along the Llobregat river catchment area in Spain. Sample types included freshwater, untreated and treated wastewater, and drinking water. All genogroups were recovered, and a seasonal distribution was observed. This is the first report of SaV quantification and(More)
Half a century ago scientists attempted the detection of poliovirus in water. Since then other enteric viruses responsible for gastroenteritis and hepatitis have replaced enteroviruses as the main target for detection. However, most viral outbreaks are restricted to norovirus and hepatitis A virus, making them the main targets in water. The inclusion of(More)
A new continuous epitope of hepatitis A virus (HAV) was defined in the VP3 protein. Convalescent sera recognised the synthetic peptide 3110-3121 (FWRGDLVFDFQV). The replacement of the arginine, glycine, or aspartic acid at positions 112, 113, or 114, respectively by other amino acids induced the loss of synthetic peptide recognition by human convalescent(More)
A study of the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) in shellfish from the northwestern coast of Spain, one of the most important mussel producers in the world, was carried out employing dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. In addition, bacterial contamination of the samples was evaluated by Escherichia coli (EC) counts,(More)
Molecular methods for the detection and typing of hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains in sewage were applied to determine its distribution in Cairo and Barcelona. The study revealed the occurrence of different patterns of hepatitis A endemicity in each city. The circulating strains characterized, whether in Cairo or Barcelona, were genotype IB. The effects of a(More)
An outbreak of hepatitis A, affecting 183 people, occurred in Valencia (Spain). Epidemiological evidence pointed to an association of the outbreak with consumption of Coquina clams (Donax sp), imported frozen from Peru. Shellfish were analysed for the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), enteroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, caliciviruses and hepatitis(More)