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OBJECTIVE To report the distribution of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores by age and educational level. DESIGN National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program surveys conducted between 1980 and 1984. SETTING Community populations in New Haven, Conn; Baltimore, Md; St Louis, Mo; Durham, NC; and Los Angeles, Calif. (More)
OBJECTIVE To study patterns of co-occurrence of lifetime DSM-III-R alcohol disorders in a household sample. METHODS Data came from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), a nationally representative household survey. Diagnoses were based on a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS Respondents with lifetime(More)
BACKGROUND There is suggestive evidence that depression increases risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but there are no prospective studies in which the measure of depression corresponds to clinical criteria. This study examines prospectively whether a major depressive episode increases the risk of incident MI and evaluates the role of psychotropic(More)
OBJECTIVE The risks of heavy drinking and alcohol abuse/dependence were prospectively assessed among individuals with DSM-III social phobia and individuals with subclinical social phobia (irrational fear of social situations without significant impairment or avoidance). METHOD The baseline interview for the Baltimore site of the Epidemiologic Catchment(More)
Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to examine the relation between obesity and depression. Past-month depression was defined using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, and was measured with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Obesity was defined as a(More)
BACKGROUND Personality traits are considered risk factors for drug use, and, in turn, the psychoactive substances impact individuals' traits. Furthermore, there is increasing interest in developing treatment approaches that match an individual's personality profile. To advance our knowledge of the role of individual differences in drug use, the present(More)
BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an(More)
We hypothesized that neighborhood disadvantage might function as a determinant of "exposure opportunity', an intermediate step on a path toward starting to use drugs illicitly. Testing this hypothesis, we analyzed self-report data gathered in 1992 by means of confidential interviews with 1416 urban-dwelling middle-school participants in a longitudinal field(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine associations between prenatal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the odds of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other developmental delays (DDs). METHODS A total of 966 mother-child pairs were evaluated (492 ASD, 154 DD, 320 typical development [TD]) from the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors' goal was to determine whether depression is associated with a greater risk of heavy alcohol consumption in women. METHOD The study was based on a 1-year follow-up of the Baltimore cohort of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. The sample consisted of 1,383 women at risk for heavy alcohol use.(More)