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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress (OS) and its biomarkers are the biochemical end point of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the antioxidant (AOX) biological systems to fight against oxidative injury. OBJECTIVE We reviewed the role of OS and its downstream signaling in aging eyes. METHODS A search of the(More)
Advances in optical coherence tomography have enabled a better appreciation of the role of pathologic choroidal changes in a variety of retinal disease. A "pachychoroid" (pachy-[prefix]: thick) is defined as an abnormal and permanent increase in choroidal thickness often showing dilated choroidal vessels and other structural alterations of the normal(More)
INTRODUCTION An entirely new type of staphyloma has been recently described as dome-shaped macula (DSM). It is characterized by an abnormal convex macular contour within the concavity of a posterior staphyloma. We found DSM associated with serous macular detachment (SMD) and tilted disc in two consecutive cases. CASE REPORTS Case 1: A 37-year-old female(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA) in the guidance of macular laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema. METHODS This was a prospective interventional clinical comparative pilot study. Forty eyes from 24 consecutive patients with(More)
INTRODUCTION Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) prognosis depends on early recognition and treatment; chronic disease may be developed when either delayed or inadequate treatment is performed, whereas other cases despite correct treatment are refractory to different drugs and also become chronic. We report a case of refractory VKH controlled with rituximab(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with a variety of ocular diseases. The currently available TNF-? inhibitors are etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab. Experimental and clinical studies on the intravitreal use of these agents have been reported with etanercept, infliximab, and(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study is to evaluate the retinal and choroidal thickness of the macular region in patients with unilateral relentless placoid chorioretinitis (RPC) and macular involvement. Patients diagnosed with RPC affecting only one eye underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA),(More)
PURPOSE To report a case of Coats' disease managed with the dexamethasone intravitreal implant Ozurdex(®) (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, Calif., USA) combined with retinal photocoagulation. METHODS A 46-year-old female with 20/200 visual acuity was diagnosed with Coats' disease with secondary retinal vasoproliferative tumor. An initial approach was performed(More)